project synopsis & site map

bosque section - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

The 2014 – 2016 studies, designs and interventions that comprise À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting are in response to Utopiana’s call for the thematic residency, La Bête et l’adversité. We explore one ‘beast’ in nature: human memory and the ways that biology, culture and our individual developments mediate what we know of landscapes and how we interact and sometimes transform public spaces. In this context, we explore divergent experiences of the postcolonial world: the Geneva region that was not colonized and has had an uneven relationship with the imperial and modernist projects and the still decolonising Salish Sea region of the South Coast of Pacific Canada and adjacent Puget Sound in the United States of America.

edible chokecherry, Prunus virginiana, fruit (‘drupe’) (2016 August 11 above Fulford Harbour just 50 metres west of the historic stone Catholic Church, Salt Spring Island photo by Alex Grunenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram)

indefinite decolonial matrix - presqueperdu - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

Within these landscapes, we explore and imagine reinserting dwindling populations of wild and traditional tree crops, in the gene pools of

apple and pear,

plum and cherry,

raspberry and blackberry, and

blueberry and cranberry.

For other Canadians having very mixed feelings about next week’s 150th anniversary of the modern Canadian state (including its massive repressive apparatuses), perhaps we need an alternative symbol. This is the only native tree that is in every province and territory: chokecherry, Prunus virginiana. It was known in nearly every indigenous language was the first fruit after the glaciers receded, has medicinal bark (for the original cherry cough lozenge), and produced the preferred poles for teepees. (2017 May 7, Ruckle Provincial Park, Salt Spring Island photo by Alex Grunenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram)

Tree fruit in this project also becomes a focus for exploring ecological and cultural legacies and ‘gifts’ within ecosystems with renewed interest in philosophies of gratitude so central to indigenous cultures in the Western Hemisphere. The divergent indigenous cultures of these gene pools, that span both the Geneva and the Vancouver-Seattle regions across Europe, Asia, and north-western North America are reconnoitered. In this way, we critique and begin to decolonise popular and sometimes trite notions of ‘permaculture’, a set of principles and practices for diverse and more sustainable agro-ecosystems by re-centring the roles of traditional knowledge and learning from and respecting local gene pools (and associated human populations).

timeline - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Initiating our investigations of forgetting, memory and remembrance as an often irascible beast within nature (and human lives), the contributions of Proust, and in particular his now waning modernist notions of the individual, landscape, and desire codified in À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu comprise a key source for understanding the legacies of the colonial projects within Europe and in margins such as Pacific Canada. In understanding this broader loss of memory and ecosystem under modernism and individuals, we construct another aspect of the emerging movement of decolonial aesthetic specifically departing from and ‘rifting’ with Proustian nostalgia. A century ago, Proust’s modernist aesthetics largely obscured labour, ecology, and political economy from experiences of landscapes, agriculture, and indigenous and traditional communities. Today, contemporary aesthetics are back to more fully appreciating cultural legacies in nature as well as the crucial role of traditional knowledge and communities and material relationships more generally.

trellis - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Our endgame, in À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting, is to propose and begin to demonstrate some interventions in public space that re-establish small groves of these often declining tree crops. As beneficiaries of the tree planting legacies of artists Joseph Beuys and Alan Sonfist, we argue that agriculture and horticulture embody practices central to the collaborative and community-based impulses in contemporary art. In this work, we are also strongly influenced by the relational aesthetics proposed over a decade ago, that are more concerned with social learning than production of static art objects, and more recent forms of radical materialism centred on cultural cognition of threats to the biosphere and human life support and that in turn challenge to intensifying social inequities.

2015 Oct 14 site planning Alex - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Just as important as generating a beneficial ecological impact through nurturing traditional local gene pools, habitats and communities, we make ‘installations’ and archives with what we can find from recycled paper and ink to digital photographs, videos and text made with old computers and mobile telephones and reworked versions of software and apps. So in a time of new forms of impoverishment for artists, our approach is aggressive in the mixing of discarded and repurposed media taking inspiration from the minimalism and disregard for polish of the Arte Povera movement of Italy in the 1970s.

fruit agriculture culture

This site only holds the work of Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram. Collaborative work completed in this project is posted at www.castlegrunenfelderingram.space/perdu.

permaculture impermanent culture

In using this site, the categories listed on the left, seen after further scrolling, link to particular aspects of project development and specific works. Each of these categories represents a longer-term project that we hope to explore more fully in coming years.

Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram of castle grünenfelder ingram

decolonial public art

Canada Council logo

A portion of the total travel costs of Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram has been paid by the Canada Council for the Arts.

Canada Council logo

fruit (a month from being ripe) of crabapple trees, Malus fusca, in a grove with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 11 & 12 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

2015 Sept urban bosques - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Salish fruit tree species of the Gulf & San Juan Islands

edible drupes of chokecherry, Prunus virginian a, above Fulford Harbour, just west of the historic Catholic Church, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 9 – 11 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Salish fruit tree species of the Gulf & San Juan Islands

Around the Salish Sea, there were more than six native, tree species that have been harvested and often carefully cultivated and stewarded for fruit, technology, and medicine. These orchards and respective cultivation practices span a rich set of Salish communities and languages. By ‘fruit tree’, we describe a relatively small deciduous tree that has been maintained by families and communities. With heights ranging from a meter and a half to three meters, these trees were often kept low in order to stimulate fruit production and allow for ease of picking (and more often through shaking with sticks). For some Salish fruit species, cultures and sites, orchards were maintained through planting of seed, transplanting, pruning, and light burning.

fruit of crabapple trees, Malus fusca, in a grove with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 11 & 12 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca

Of all of the fruit trees around the Salish Sea, this indigenous crabapple produced the most food and provided crucial amounts of carbohydrates and vitamins. Crabapples were eaten raw and preserved in water or eulachon oil in cedar boxes. And of the five, indigenous North American apples, only Malus fusca, is in the primary gene pool of the cultivated, Eurasian apple. Malus fusca grows near the coast of the North Pacific from central California to Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula and possibly to Hokkaido. Nancy Turner (2014: 59, 65) went as far as suggesting that this species was spread by early human migrants and consistently collected information from informants confirming that crabapple “[t]rees [were] tended pruned, lopped, and transplanted” (Turner 2014: 189).

blossoms of crabapple trees, Malus fusca, in a grove with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 11 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Perhaps more than any of the other native fruit tree species around the Salish Sea, crabapple trees were “owned” (Turner 2014: 189) often passing from mother to daughter. And in some North-West Coast indigenous cultures, Pacific crabapple was considered a particularly powerful plant central to a complex conception of transformative twigs (as in the cuttings and vegetative propagation so central to Salish horticulture) leading to magical expansions of life into entire ecosystems for human benefit (Turner 2014: 344). In turn, crabapple orchards or ‘gardens’ were often well maintained and pruned.

edible drupes of chokecherry, Prunus virginiana, above Fulford Harbour, just west of the historic Catholic Church, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 9 – 11 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Chokecherry, Prunus virginiana

This species of cherry tree is native to every province and territory in Canada. This particular cherry is relatively rare on the Pacific coast largely confined to the Salish Sea. Along the Pacific coast, from Salt Spring Island southward, this species is associated with better-watered sites in Garry oak woodlands and savannahs with this species, though perhaps a different subspecies, reappearing again near marine shorelines in Mendocino County, California.

blossoms of chokecherry, Prunus virginiana, above Fulford Harbour, just west of the historic Catholic Church, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 20 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

This, the most bountiful of the cherries of north-western North America, has close Eurasian relatives extending to Western Europe. Around the Salish Sea, chokecherry were widely harvested, traded (Turner 2014: 124), and tended (Turner 2014: 189). Chokecherry bark was a crucial ingredient in a number of medicinal decoctions (Turner 2014: 437). Distinct varieties of this species were recognized by some Salish communities. So far, the specimens recorded around the Salish Sea have been consistent with the North-West Coast subspecies, Prunus virginiana ssp. demissa.

blossoms of black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii, Ruckle Provincial Park, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

 

blossoms of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata, Beaver Point Road just north of North Ridge Drive 2017 May 5 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata

“The fruit of this ‘bitter cherry’ tree was not widely harvested but its wood was prized for knife handles and its bark was crucial for basket weaving” (Turner 2014: 124).

 

buds of Crataegus douglasii var douglasii about a week before blossoming at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Two species of black hawthorn

On the Gulf and San Juan Islands and other areas around the Salish Sea, there are two distinct species of black hawthorn:

blossoms of Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii just above the tide-line at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 6 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii

and

blossoms of Crataegus douglasii var suksdorfii along Burgoyne Bay Road near the main provincial park parking lot, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii

that is often considered a separate species in the United States as, Crataegus suksdorfii.

First Nations around the Salish Sea harvested the fruit and stewarded two species of Black hawthorn (Turner 2014: 272). “The dry sweetish fruits were eaten by the Island Salish groups, usually in the early fall. The Songhees ate them with salmon roe (Boas, 1890).[Turner & Bell]”

buds of Crataegus douglasii var douglasii about a week before blossoming above the beach just north of the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 6 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii  is often more associated with the mainland and interior of British Columbia, which occurs more often as a large shrub with some tree forms on the Gulf Islands. In contrast, the island subspecies or species of Black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii (with a distribution more centred on the coast), is more often in a taller, tree form. The label Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii corresponds to a species identified in the United States including for the San Juan Islands as Crataegus suksdorfii differentiated as a distinct species because “It is diploid versus tetraploid for Crataegus douglasii.” As well as subtle but consistent differences in the leaves of these two black hawthorn species, a simple differentiation can be made by examining the centre of a blossom. The flowers of “Variation douglasii” nearly always have 10 stamens with ovaries that are more often hairy whereas the flowers of “Variation suksdorfii” have 20 stamens and the ovaries are usually smooth.

 

California hazelnut, Corylus cornuta var. californica

California hazelnut occur near the West Coast of North America from California to Alaska and are closely related to Eurasian hazelnut species that occur as far west as north-western Spain. Within the populations on the North-West Coast of North America, there were two subspecies. The involucral ‘beaks’ attached to the nuts of Corylus cornuta var. cornuta are twice as long as the actual fruit / nut. In contrast, Corylus cornuta var. california fruit are attached to involucral beaks that are half that length and roughly the diameter of the sometimes  larger fruit (that might be the result of indigenous domestication, stewardship, and ecosystem management).

Hazelnut was transplanted on the BC coast (Turner 2014: 203 – 204) and groves were sometimes managed through burning (Turner 2014: 198). Hazelnut were sometimes transplanted (Turner 2014: 365). There are records of historical orchards in northern areas such as the lower Skeena Valley that well into the twentieth century were defended by First Nations who asserted dietary dependence, ownership and stewardship. Around the Salish Sea, records of significant groves are for sites near indigenous settlements and historical population centres. On the Gulf Islands, a significant record of ‘wild hazelnut’ was around Beaver Point Hall on Salt Spring Island just above the Tsawout / mixed Saanich and Cowichan village on the island’s south-east shore.

 

Along with chokecherry, two other species are common in many interior regions of British Columbia and further east in Canada, and are thought to have been more common around the Salish Sea before 5,000 b.p.

 

 

blossoms of Saskatoon berry, Amelanchier alnifolia, bove the beach just north of the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station
blossoms of Saskatoon berry, Amelanchier alnifolia, bushes adjacent to some Garry oak woodland above the beach just north of the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Saskatoon berry, Amelanchier alnifolia, was transplanted by some First Nations in the region (Turner 203 – 204) as late as the early 20th Century.

 

Soapberry, Shepherdia canadensis,  is thought to have been more common on the Coast and more important dietarily than it is now (Turner 2014: 140 – 144). Along the coast and in the interior, soapberry patches were “maintained by landscape burning, bushes pruned, berries scattered” and “occasionally transplanted” (Turner 2014: 191)

a cultivated European apple tree, Malus sylvestris, planted at what is today Ruckle Provincial Park in the late 19th or early 20th century; around these old trees are second and third generation, ‘volunteer’ apple and pear trees, that most likely have hybridized with the adjacent Salish crabapple trees, Malus fusca, which is the only North American Malus species that can cross with cultivated Eurasian apple crops 2017 May 5 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

circumpolar Eurasian hybrids

All of the Salish fruit tree species, aside from Saskatoon berry and soapberry, are part of circumpolar gene pools with millennia of relationships with human beings and domestication processes — on both sides of Beringia. But there are some distinct differences between each side of the North Pacific. Nearly all of the petals of the Eurasian domesticates are one and a half to twice the size of the North American species. Another general difference between ‘wild’, traditionally stewarded, and indigenous, North American and domesticated and Eurasian, primarily north-western Europe, sides of those gene pools is this simple dichotomy:

aside from the Island species of black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii / Crataegus suksdorfii, which blossoms simultaneously with slow leafing, the North American native fruit trees nearly always leaf-out a week or two BEFORE blossoming

while

the Eurasian domesticates nearly always produce blossoms before they leaf out.

And on the Gulf Islands there are circumpolar hybrids where blossoming and leafing are more simultaneous such as a probable,

hybrid of native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata, and introduced, north-western European blackthorn or sloe, Prunus spinosa, that began to reproduce without cultivation starting in the twentieth century on Salt Spring Island, where blossoms and fruit begin with a double cluster several inches from the end of each branch like bitter cherry, with petals large like a European domesticate, and blossoming and leafing relatively simultaneous.

***

The Turner 2014 references above refers to the most definitive survey, so far, of indigenous tree crops in British Columbia:

Nancy J. Turner. 2014. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Volume Two – The Place and Meaning of Plants in Indigenous Cultures and Worldviews. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Volume One is also crucial for understanding the human relationships with these species of fruit trees.

a blooming grove of crabapple trees, Malus fusca, with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 11 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native, Salish fruit trees

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lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana” installed in Vancouver at Station & Terminal, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Alex Grünenfelder

 

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native fruit trees

host
City of Vancouver Public Art Program

 

initial posters in the ongoing ‘Nearly Lost’ project

4 different posters installed in 20 bus shelters with the poster dimension 47.25 inches x 68.25 inches.

 

installation & locations
October 10 to November 7, 2016 (with locations attached)

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authorship
castle grünenfelder ingram (Julian Castle, Alex Grünenfelder, and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram with this project involving conceptualization by all three artists, research, photographing, and initial design conceptualization by Grünenfelder and Brochu-Ingram, text by Brochu-Ingram, and final designs and electronic conveyance by Grünenfelder)

castle grünenfelder ingram is a collective of three working on the cusp of public art, urban design, sustainability transitions, and intercultural conversations especially around First Nations legacies in public space and local territories. Only working together for two years, our individual work in Vancouver goes back decades along with other projects and installations in Kamloops, New York, London UK, Seoul, Geneva, and Prince George. As one of our projects, we coordinate KEXMIN field station, on Salt Spring Island, as a centre for research and learning spanning traditional indigenous knowledge and contemporary science for environmental planning, ecological design, public art and other forms of contemporary cultural production with a focus on the Salish Sea and its Gulf and San Juan Islands between the mainland of the North American West Coast and Vancouver Island.

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castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #3 kwu7upay Pacific crabapple Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at Commercial & Adanac, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Laiwan

 

text from project proposal

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native fruit trees We propose large 2D imagery especially at bus stops, with video loop installations also possible for the video screens, of fruit and blossoms of several of the native fruit trees that have existed and continue to survive in the City of Vancouver — and that are of continued interest for First Native use, stewardship, and cultivation. Low resolution photographs would be enlarged, slightly saturated, and ‘montaged’ with educational text in English, Halkomelem (Musqueam and Tsleil-Waututh), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim (Squamish) along with other widely spoken languages, and botanical Latin. For the 2015-2016, we would be able focus on making a number of montage posters celebrating two of the most common native fruit trees and more extensive Salish orchards, Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, and chokecherry, Prunus virginiana ssp. demissa. Both of this crabapple species and this subspecies of chokecherry are limited to coastal ecosystems in BC, Alaska, and Washington State.

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text on posters
four different posters with large type with,

1. lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

2. t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

3. ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca

4. qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca

Along with the following headings is the following text for respective poster:

1. lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

One of the Salish names for chokecherry is lhexwlhéxw in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ Downriver dialect of Halkomelem language.

2. t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

One of the Salish names for chokecherry is t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) in the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim language.

3. ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca One of the Salish names for Pacific crabapple is ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) in the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim language.

4. qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca One of the Salish names for Pacific crabapple is qwa’upulhp in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ Downriver dialect of Halkomelem language.

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For the two posters on chokecherry, there is the following text: Chokecherry has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver.

For the two posters on Pacific crabapple, there is the following text: Pacific crabapple has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver. For the two posters on chokecherry, there is the following text: Chokecherry has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver. For the two posters on Pacific crabapple, there is the following text: Pacific crabapple has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver.

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All four posters have the following text: This species is being studied at KEXMIN field station, a centre for conversations spanning traditional indigenous knowledge, modern science, and contemporary art — a project of castle grünenfelder ingram (Julian Castle, Alex Grünenfelder and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram). The following text was provided by the City of Vancouver: Commissioned as part of the series Coastal City for the 25th Anniversary of the City of Vancouver Public Art Program Vancouver.ca/platform2016

media
Inkjet printer on paper photographing
The photographs in the attached images of the posters were photographed jointly by Alex Grünenfelder and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram. All of the photographs of the posters installed in the bus shelters were taken by by Alex Grünenfelder.

fabricators / suppliers
OUTFRONT MEDIA Decaux in cooperation with
the printer, LinxPrint, as service-providers to the City of Vancouver

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castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #3 kwu7upay Pacific crabapple Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at Nanaimo & East 3rd, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Laiwan

 

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castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #4 qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at King Edward & Ontario, late October and early November 2016,  photograph by Sally Ogis

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Mnidoo Mnising | chokecherry | crossroad: a multi-site installation with chokecherry, Prunus virginiana, proposed for a bicycle trail on Manitoulin Island, Ontario

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proposal by castle grünenfelder ingram
Mnidoo Mnising | chokecherry | crossroad: a multi-site installation with chokecherry, Prunus virginiana, proposed for a bicycle trail on Manitoulin Island, Ontario

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project concept

Chokecherry [asasawemin [fruit] and asasaweminagaawanzh [bush] in Ojibway, Prunus virginiana in Latin] has been crucial to all of the peoples who have enjoyed Mnidoo Mnising since the receding of the glaciers and the emergence of the island. Chokecherry fruit has been important to local communities as is the medicinal bark. This proposal for public art envisions several installations across the sites available involving:

1. already-established or planted groves of chokecherry at a relatively small scale such as around 5 meters by 5 meters (17 feet x 17 feet);

2. the trees surrounded by abstractions of different chokecherry forms made into permanent sculpture;

3. sculptural elements fabricated from local recycled and repurposed material (mainly wood and metal, no plastic, some paint) in collaboration with local elders and craftspeople;

4. so that each sculpture protects respective groves;

5. along with two plaques of roughly 1 m x 1 x, one more general information about the project, and the other plaque providing information to specific to each installation;

6. text in five languages: Anishnaabeg (Ojibwe), Odawa, Potawatomi, English, and French;

7. an archive and website of consultations with elders and fabricators (who would be presented as collaborating artists) and;

8. performances and other events adjacent to some of the installation sites, related to chokecherry, that would be documented in the archive and on the website —

with two possible manifestations of this project:

a. a larger, $50,000 work with 3 or 4 sites plus chokecherry trees planted or already established, 4 sculptural and text installations with each sculpture up to 2 to 3 metres in height or

b. a smaller $30,000 with 2 sites plus chokecherry trees planted or already established, 2 sculptural and text installations with sculptural elements smaller such as 1 to 2 metres in height and with the possibility of a second castle grünenfelder ingram work for some of these sites generating a soundscape.

This concept proposal envisions elders and fabricators who would be acknowledged as collaborating artists with a transparent and fair, financial formula for fees to these individuals, as part of the final project budget.

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inspirations

Out on the West Coast, our artist collective and field station researchers have been revisiting (and protecting and planting) chokecherry for several years as part of cultural revival of knowledge of traditional fruit and medicinals, on one hand, and for providing a point for intercultural dialogue on the other hand. In October and November of 2016, we have posters in bus-shelters, funded by the City of Vancouver, acknowledging that indigenous families continue to steward, harvest, and own chokecherry and Pacific crabapple.

This particular proposal is to explore divergent experiences of chokecherry that today are relevant to both indigenous and settle people:

the numerous traditional indigenous experiences of chokecherry that extend from harvesting of fruit and bark to protection and stewardship, including a worldview that acknowledges these trees and bushes as crucial relations within a culture of gratitude and respect

and

the modern scientific and environmentalist view of chokecherry as one of the first fruit trees in Canada that re-established after the Ice Age with today’s role being increasingly crucial for pollinators and birds. And from the standpoint of the Canada Council acknowledgements of the 150th Anniversary of Confederation, this one species of chokecherry is the only tree and shrub that occurs in any province and territory of Canada.

And in the spirit of an alternative acknowledgement of Confederation, for First Nations, we celebrate Mnidoo Mnising as the centre, the crossroad, for chokecherry, and knowledge of this important fruit and tree, on this continent.

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some chokecherry forms

The forms of the chokecherry tree, that could be explored, abstracted, and re-iterated around the groves, primarily in metal and wood, would involve recombining some of the following outlines:

1. fruit;

2. blossoms;

3. leaves;

4. trunks;

5. fruit – twigs – branches;

6. bark; and

7. seedlings.

While the actual chokecherry trees are around or near the installations, the sculptures themselves would recombine some of the key lines in the forms and biology of these trees with homages to the three aesthetic movements that have influenced us most:

a. minimalist Coast Salish wood carving that is more austere and abstract that carving further north and west on the Pacific coast;

b. relatively minimalist wood, often log, constructions once common in Métis communities particularly in far north-western Canada rather then in more populous, agricultural areas of the Prairies; and

c. early Swiss Modernism emphasizing clean, rectangular forms.

4-chokecherry-form-study-4-castle-grunenfelder-ingram-small

collaborative processes with local elders and fabricators

One of us grew up on the edge of an Indian Reserve as part of a Salish-speaking First Nation that has had remarkable success at closing down a residential school (in 1960 with one of us in this collective present), revitalizing their language, and nurturing public art that transmits contentious territorial and cultural experiences (for some non-indigenous people). He has spent decades working with over a score of First Nations in numerous communities. And we are well aware of the garbage disposal issues in many remote communities. So while we have worked with numerous other First Nations artists and craftspeople, we do not have any illusions that working with elders and fabricators on Manitoulin Island would not always be easy. But chokecherry trees can bring us together in new dialogues in cooperation with 4elements Living Arts. So the selection and fabrication of found objects could well involve a wide range of people from the artists to elders who are fabricators to young people supervised by elders and even to school children.

As for pay for advising elders and local fabricators, honorariums were be proposed for a small number of days with elders as advised by 4elements Living Arts. As for pay for community members, all of the artists and local participants, including fabricators, would be asked to work for the same minimum wage in order for there to be a travel and materials budget to complete these installations. Again, one us has spend much of his life working with reserve communities and with negotiating fair exchanges – that would warrant supervision by 4elements Living Arts.

5-chokecherry-form-study-5-castle-grunenfelder-ingramsmall

choice of local materials

This is perhaps the biggest unknown of this particular proposal. Are there reusable materials on the island that are durable, beautiful, ‘clean’ as in not toxic, and of interest to local fabricators – especially those with indigenous knowledge? Probably there are. But the research phase, our field work after being offered a commission, might become too time-consuming. So by May of 2017 and if there were insufficient, discarded wood, metal, stone, and other local material for these installations, the ‘fall back’ would be working with local metal and wood workers with much of the labour completed by Brochu-Ingram and Grünenfelder. But in such an area with a rich history of cultural production, we hope to spark some interest from elders and school classes to become involved and make this project, in part, community-based.

6-chokecherry-form-study-6-castle-grunenfelder-ingramsmall

collective statement

castle grünenfelder ingram is a collective of three working on the cusp of public art, urban design, sustainability transitions, and intercultural conversations especially around First Nations legacies in public space and local territories. Only working together for two years, our individual work in Vancouver goes back decades along with other projects and installations in Kamloops, New York, London UK, Seoul, Geneva, and Prince George.

As one of our projects, we coordinate KEXMIN field station, on Salt Spring Island, as a centre for research and learning spanning traditional indigenous knowledge and contemporary science for environmental planning, ecological design, public art and other forms of contemporary cultural production with a focus on the Salish Sea and its Gulf and San Juan Islands between the mainland of the North American West Coast and Vancouver Island.

7-chokecherry-form-study-7-castle-grunenfelder-ingramsmall

Ripening crabapple, qwa’up [Hul’q’umi’num], Malus fusca on Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island

*crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_1189

Pacific crabapple, qwa’upulhp (in the downriver dialect of Halkomelem), ḴÁ¸EW̱ (SENĆOŦEN), Malus fusca, north of the site of the village of Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 11 & 12, photographs by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

0 crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0599

1 crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_1113

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0582

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0499

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_1015

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0964

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0533

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0510

ripe chokecherry, thuxwun [Halkomelem], Prunus virginiana, above Fulford Harbour, Salt Spring Island

 

2016 August 12 chokecherry Grünenfelder & Ingram IMG_0049

ripe chokecherry, lhex̱wlhéx̱w & thuxwun [Halkomelem] above Fulford Harbour, Salt Spring Island photograph by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2016 August 12

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0472

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0471

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0443

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0431

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0378

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0249

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0143

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0047 copy

4 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0476

3 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0579

2 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0446

1 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0573

0 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0563

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0379 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0435 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0584

project bibliography: 1. plants | landscapes | memory | forgetting | remembering | landscapes

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

 

2016 August 12 Pacific crabapple (grunenfelder & ingram) IMG_0059

Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 12 photograph by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

bibliography heading

  1. plants | landscapes | memory | forgetting | remembering | landscapes

compiled project bibliography: 2017 June 22 bibliography À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu

 

Anderson, E. N., Deborah Pearsall, Eugene Hunn and Nancy Turner. (editors). 2011. Ethnobiology. Hoboken New Jersey: Wiley – Blackwell.

Dorrian, Mark and Gillian Rose (eds.) 2003. Deterritorializations. London: Black Dog Publishing.

Groh, Jennifer M. 2014 Making Space: How the Brain Knows Where Things Are. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Gussow, Mel. 1995. Into Arcadia With Simon Schama. New York Times (June 5, 1995).

Hajjar, Reem and Toby Hodgkin. 2007. The use of wild relatives in crop improvement: A survey of developments over the last 20 years. Euphytica 156: 1 – 13.

Hoskins, William George. 1955. The Making of the English Landscape. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Ingram, Gordon Brent 1997. Marginality and the landscapes of erotic alien( n)ations. in Queers in Space: Communities | Public Places | Sites of Resistance. Ingram, G. B., A.-M. Bouthillette and Y. Retter (eds.). Seattle: Bay Press. 27 – 52.

Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. 1980. Necessity of Ruins. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press.

Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. 1984. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Jacques, David. 1995. The Rise of Cultural Landscapes. International Journal of Heritage Studies 1-2: 91 – 101.

karenarchey. 2015. Jimmie Durham documenta13 work destroyed in Kassel. conversations e-flux (July 2015).

Kennedy, David O. 2014. Plants and the Human Brain. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.

Mancuso, Stefano and Alessandra Viola. 2015. Brilliant Green: the Surprising History and Science of Plant Intelligence. Washington DC: Island Press.

Martin, Gary J. 1995. Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual. London: Chapman and Hall.

Meinig, D. W. (ed.). 1979. The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays. London: Oxford University Press.

Mitchell, W. J. T. 1994 (2002). Landscape and Power. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Nabhan, Gary P. 1997. Cultures of Habitat: One Nature, Culture and Story. Washington DC: Counterpoint.

Nabhan, Gary. 2013. Growing Food in a Hotter, Drier Land: Lessons from Desert Farmers on Adapting to Climate Uncertainty. White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing.

Natcher, D.C. and C.G. Hickey. 2003. Putting the community back into community-based resource management: A criteria and indicators approach to sustainability. Human Organization 61 (4): 350 – 363.

Nazarea, Virginia D. (editor). 1999. Ethnoecology: Situated Knowledge / Located Lives. Tuscon, Arizona: University of Arizona Press.

Pollan, Michael. 2002. “Cannabis, The Importance of Forgetting, and the Botany of Desire”. Lecture as the 2002-2003 Avenali Chair in the Humanities at the Townsend Center for the Humanities, University of California, Berkeley.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7QA7Ae1ENA

Ponte, Alessandra. 2014. The Map and the Territory. in The House of Light and Entropy. London: Architectural Association. pages 169–221.

Proust, Marcel. 1913 – 1927 (2002). In Search of Lost Time (7 volumes) translated by Lydia Davis, Mark Treharne, James Grieve, John Sturrock, Carol Clark, Peter Collier, & Ian Patterson. London: Allen Lane.

Proust, Marcel. 2013. Swann’s Way: In Search of Lost Time Volume 1. (Translated and annotated by William C. Carter). New Haven: Yale University Press.

Robertson, I. & Richards P. 2003. Studying Cultural Landscapes. Robertson I. & P. Richards (editors). London: Arnold.

Sauer, Carl Ortwin. 1963. Land and Life: A Selection from the Writings. Leighly, John. (ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Schama, Simon. 1995. Landscape and Memory. London: Harper Collins.

Spirn, Anne Whiston. 2000. The Language of Landscape. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Supreme Court of Canada. 2014. Decision: Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia. [Date: 2014-06-26 / Neutral citation 2014 SCC 44 / Report [2014] 2 SCR 256 Case number 34986]. Ottawa: Supreme Court of Canada. https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/14246/index.do

Thompson,Nato. 2015. Experimental Geography: Radical Approaches to Landscape, Cartography, and Urbanism. New York: Independent Curators International / Melville House.

Wikipedia. 2015. Involuntary memory. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Involuntary_memory

Wikipedia. 2015. Memory in ‘In Search of Lost Time’. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_Search_of_Lost_Time

project bibliography: 2. cultivation as contemporary culture: sites | public space | plants as art interventions

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

#4 Utopiana garden (Vernier - Geneva - Switzerland) 1 castle&ingram

bibliography heading

compiled bibliographies for project:  2017 June 22 bibliography À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu

  1. cultivation as contemporary culture: sites | public space | plants as art interventions

 

Benner, Ron. 2008. Gardens of a Colonial Present / Jardins d’un Present Colonial. London, Ontario: London Museum.

Beuys, Joseph. 1982. 7000 Eichen – Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung) / 7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration. Kassel, Hesse: documenta 7.

Brenson, Michael. 1990. Review: Art – Plaster as a Medium, Not Just an Interim Step (Alan Sonfist, Max Protetch Gallery). New York Times (July 13, 1990).

Brooks, Katherine. 2014. This One Tree Grows 40 Different Types Of Fruit, Is Probably From The Future. The Huffington Post (July 24, 2014) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/24/tree-of-40-fruit_n_5614935.html

Bunting, Madeleine. 2009. The rise of climate-change art. Guardian (London)(2 December, 2009).

Burns, David, Matias Viegener and Austin Young. 2005. FALLENFRUIT Manifesto. http://www.fallenfruit.org/wp-content/uploads/FF-manifesto-handout.pdf

Caruth, Nicole J. 2012. The Growing Trend. Big Red & Shiny (December 12, 2012). http://bigredandshiny.org/16762/the-growing-trend/

Cave, Damien. 2012. Mexico City Journal: Lush Walls Rise to Fight a Blanket of Pollution. New York Times: April 9, 2012

Fitzzaland, Elizabeth. 2015. Putting the ‘farm’ in farmland – The Burgoyne Valley Community Farm on Salt Spring Island – Aqua (Salt Spring Island) (10)2: 26-30. http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk//launch.aspx?eid=9fea0657-4182-4d17-8543-ef2b5f74b880

Gallardo, Francisco Javier Fernández. 2014. biodiverCITY, the cocktail book, notes on how to taste soil, bees, ecosystems and networks of organisms — including humans. Else 0 (October 2014): 26 – 35.

Goodyear, Dana. 2012. Eat A Free Peach: Mapping “Public Fruit.” The New Yorker (MARCH 12, 2012). http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/eat-a-free-peach-mapping-public-fruit

Hay. Daisy. 2010. Young Romantics: The Tangled Lives of English Poetry’s Greatest Generation. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Hirshey, Gerri. 2008. Why Fight Invasive Vines? Just Turn Them Into Art – WOMAN VS. NATURE Laura Spector wrestling with some Celastrus orbiculata. New York Times (March 30, 2008).

Kelly, Caleb and Ross Gibson. 2010. Contemporary Art & The Noise of TENDING. Interference A Journal of Audio Culture (Dublin) 4. http://www.interferencejournal.com/articles/noise/the-noise-of-tending

Kent, Elizabeth. 1823. Flora domestica, or, The portable flower-garden: with directions for the treatment of plants in pots and illustrations from the works of the poets. London: Taylor and Hessey.  https://archive.org/details/floradomesticaor00kent

Landi, Ann. 2011. Separating the Trees from the Forest: Alan Sonfist has built a career as an urban land artist. ARTnews (Summer 2011) (POSTED 08/15/11 5:58 PM). http://www.artnews.com/2011/08/15/separating-the-trees-from-the-forest/

Linklater, Duane. 2012. Untitled (a raspberry garden for 21st. St.). In conjunction with Bard Centre for Curatorial Studies and Family Business Gallery. The opening of the exhibition consisted of a 45 minute talk with Wil Heinrich. An event several weeks later took place in which poet Layli Longsoldier read her series of poems Whereas – a pointed poetic response to President Barrack Obama’s little known apology to Native Americans in 2010. http://www.duanelinklater.com/index.php?/raspberry/

Mafi, Nick. 2015. Designer Gavin Munro Casts Trees Into Beautiful Furnishings. Architectural Digest (April 24, 2015) http://www.architecturaldigest.com/blogs/daily/2015/04/furniture-grown-from-trees

Prigann, H. and H Strelow (editors). 2004. Ecological Aesthetics: Art in environmental design theory and practice. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser.

Reynolds, Richard. 2008. Guerrilla Gardening. London: Bloomsbury.

Riedelsheimer, Thomas (director). 2011. Jardin en el mar ( Garden in the Sea). (Mexico, Germany, 2011, 69 mins, HDCAM video).

Rosenberg, Karen. 2008. ART REVIEW | ‘IMPLANT’ – Yes, the Live Music Is Lovely, but Will the Plants Like It? New York Times (August 7, 2008).

Salkeld, Lauren interviewed Sam Van Aken. N.D. The Tree of 40 Fruit Is Exactly as Awesome as It Sounds. epicurious.com. http://www.epicurious.com/archive/chefsexperts/interviews/sam-van-aken-interview

Sonfist, Alan, Wolfgang Becker, and Robert Rosenblum. 2004. Nature, The End of Art: Environmental Landscapes. New York: Distributed Art Publishers.

Stone, Dan. 2013. Seattle’s Free Food Experiment. National Geographic Magazine (April 29, 2013). http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2013/04/29/seattles-free-food-experiment/

SUPERFLEX. 2003. Tools: Guaraná Power. http://www.superflex.net/tools/guarana_powerhttp://www.guaranapower.org/

Thompson, Claire. 2012. Into the woods: Seattle plants a public food forest. Grist. http://grist.org/urban-agriculture/into-the-woods-seattle-plants-a-public-food-forest/

Viegener, Matias. 2015. Speculative Futures: Social practice, cognitive capitalism and / or the triumph of capital. in Informal Market Worlds: The Architecture of Economic Pressure. Peter Mörtenböeck and Helge Mooshammer (eds.). Rotterdam: nai010.

http://mviegener.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Viegener-Matias-Speculative-Futures-Social-Practice-Cognitive-Capitalism-andor-the-Triumph-of-Capital.pdf

Wark, Mckenzie. 2015. Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene. London: Verso.

 

Wikipedia. 2015. BioArt. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BioArt

project bibliography: 3. introgression: evolving Northern Hemisphere fruit tree gene pools & biocultures

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

#5 Utopiana mosaic 3 castle&ingram

bibliography heading

 

compiled project bibliographies: 2017 June 22 bibliography À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu

 

  1. introgression: evolving Northern Hemisphere fruit tree gene pools & biocultures

Berkes, Fikret. 2012. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251 – 162.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke eds. 2003. Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press

Campa, Ana, Noemí Trabanco, Elena Pérez-Vega1, Mercé Rovira and Juan J. Ferreira. 2011. Genetic relationship between cultivated and wild hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) collected in northern Spain. Plant Breeding 130(3): 360–366. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2010.01835.x/abstract

Coart, Xavier Vekemans, Marinus J M Smulders, Iris Wagner, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, and Erik Van Bockstaele. 2003. Genetic variation in the endangered wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) in Belgium as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology 12(4):845-57.

Coart, E, S Van Glabeke, M. De Loose, A.S. Larsen, and I. Roldán-Ruiz. 2006. Chloroplast diversity in the genus Malus: new insights into the relationship between the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) and the domesticated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Molecular Ecology 15(8):2171-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16780433

Deur, Douglas. 2002. Rethinking precolonial plant cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Professional Geographer 54: 140 – 157.

Deur, Douglas. 2005. Tending the garden, making the soil: Northwest Coast estuarine gardens as engineered environments. In Keeping It Living’: Traditions of Plant Use and cultivation on the Northwest coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner (editors). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 296 – 330.

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Gremli, August. 1889. The flora of Switzerland for the use of tourists and field-botanists. Fifth Edition (Leonard W. Paitson trans.). London: David Nutt (Printed in Zurich).

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Hummer, Kim E. 1996. Rubus diversity. Hortscience 31(2) (APRIL 1996): 182 – 183. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/31/2/182

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Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2005 Documenting pre-contact plant management on the Northwest Coast. An example of prescribed burning in the central and upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. in Keeping it Living: Traditions of plant use and cultivation on the Northwest Coast. Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner (editors). Seattle: UW Press / Vancouver: UBC Press. 2018 – 39.

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Routson, Kanin J, G M Volk, C M Richards, S E Smith, G P Nabhan, and V Whyllie de Echeverria. 2012. Genetic variation and distribution of Pacific crabapple. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 137(5): 325 – 332.

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Schnitzler, Annik, Claire Arnold, Amandine Cornille, Olivier Bachmann, and Christophe Schnitzler. 2014. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. PLOS| One (May 14, 2014) DOI:  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0096596

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Wagner, Iris, W.D. Maurer, P. Lemmen, H.P. Schmitt, M. Wagner, and M. Binder. 2014. Hybridization and Genetic Diversity in Wild Apple (Malus_sylvestris (L.) MILL) from Various Regions in Germany and from Luxembourg. Silvae Genetica 63(3):81-94.  http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270450148_Hybridization_and_Genetic_Diversity_in_Wild_Apple_(Malus_sylvestris_(L.)_MILL)_from_Various_Regions_in_Germany_and_from_Luxembourg

Weber, Heinrich E. 1997. Two new Rubus species from Switzerland and other parts of Central Europe. Botanica Helvetica 107(2): 211-220. http://eurekamag.com/research/009/684/009684485.php

Wyllie de Echeverria, Victoria. 2013 Moolks (Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca) on the North Coast of British Columbia: Knowledge and meaning in Gitga’at Culture. MSc thesis University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia.

Zohary, Daniel, Maria Hopf, and Ehud Weiss. 2012. Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The origin and spread of domesticated plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

bibliography: 6. decolonising permaculture

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

blossoms that will become the fruit of Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, in a grove with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 6 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

bibliography heading

compiled project biographies:  2017 June 22 bibliography À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu

  1. decolonising permaculture

Altieri, Miguel A. 1995. Agroecology: The Science Of Sustainable Agriculture (Second Edition Paperback). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Benner, Ron. 2008. Gardens of a Colonial Present / Jardins d’un Present Colonial. London, Ontario: London Museum.

Francis, Robyn. 2015. What is permaculture? Nimbin, New South Wales Australia: Djanbung Gardens. http://www.permaculture.com.au/articles/social-permaculture/art-activism-and-permaculture.html

Marques, Pedro Neves. 2015. SUPERCOMMUNITY – Look Above, the Sky is Falling: Humanity Before and After the End of the World. e-flux journal 56th Venice Biennale (Apocalypsis, May 23rd 2015—Day 14). http://supercommunity.e-flux.com/texts/look-above-the-sky-is-falling-humanity-before-and-after-the-end-of-the-world/

Mbembe, Achille. 2001. On the Postcolony. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Mollison, Bill. 1979. Permaculture Two: Practical Design for Town and Country in Permanent Agriculture. Stanley, Tasmania: Tagari Publications.

Mollison, Bill. 1988. Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual. Stanley, Tasmania: Tagari Publications.

The Laboratory of Insurrectionary Imagination. 2009. 13 Attitudes. As part of The Laboratory of Insurrectionary Imagination’s 9th Experiment: C.R.A.S.H: A post capitalist A to Z. London: The Laboratory of Insurrectionary Imagination. http://www.labofii.net/docs/13attitudes.pdf

Turner, Nancy J., R. Gregory, C. Brooks, L. Failing, and T. Satterfield. 2008. From invisibility to transparency: Identifying the implications. Ecology and Society 13(2): 7. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art7/