project synopsis & site map

bosque section - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

The 2014 – 2016 studies, designs and interventions that comprise À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting are in response to Utopiana’s call for the thematic residency, La Bête et l’adversité. We explore one ‘beast’ in nature: human memory and the ways that biology, culture and our individual developments mediate what we know of landscapes and how we interact and sometimes transform public spaces. In this context, we explore divergent experiences of the postcolonial world: the Geneva region that was not colonized and has had an uneven relationship with the imperial and modernist projects and the still decolonising Salish Sea region of the South Coast of Pacific Canada and adjacent Puget Sound in the United States of America.

indefinite decolonial matrix - presqueperdu - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

Within these landscapes, we explore and imagine reinserting dwindling populations of wild and traditional tree crops, in the gene pools of

apple and pear,

plum and cherry,

raspberry and blackberry, and

blueberry and cranberry.

montage decolonial

Tree fruit in this project also becomes a focus for exploring ecological and cultural legacies and ‘gifts’ within ecosystems with renewed interest in philosophies of gratitude so central to indigenous cultures in the Western Hemisphere. The divergent indigenous cultures of these gene pools, that span both the Geneva and the Vancouver-Seattle regions across Europe, Asia, and north-western North America are reconnoitered. In this way, we critique and begin to decolonise popular and sometimes trite notions of ‘permaculture’, a set of principles and practices for diverse and more sustainable agro-ecosystems by re-centring the roles of traditional knowledge and learning from and respecting local gene pools (and associated human populations).

timeline - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Initiating our investigations of forgetting, memory and remembrance as an often irascible beast within nature (and human lives), the contributions of Proust, and in particular his now waning modernist notions of the individual, landscape, and desire codified in À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu comprise a key source for understanding the legacies of the colonial projects within Europe and in margins such as Pacific Canada. In understanding this broader loss of memory and ecosystem under modernism and individuals, we construct another aspect of the emerging movement of decolonial aesthetic specifically departing from and ‘rifting’ with Proustian nostalgia. A century ago, Proust’s modernist aesthetics largely obscured labour, ecology, and political economy from experiences of landscapes, agriculture, and indigenous and traditional communities. Today, contemporary aesthetics are back to more fully appreciating cultural legacies in nature as well as the crucial role of traditional knowledge and communities and material relationships more generally.

trellis - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Our endgame, in À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting, is to propose and begin to demonstrate some interventions in public space that re-establish small groves of these often declining tree crops. As beneficiaries of the tree planting legacies of artists Joseph Beuys and Alan Sonfist, we argue that agriculture and horticulture embody practices central to the collaborative and community-based impulses in contemporary art. In this work, we are also strongly influenced by the relational aesthetics proposed over a decade ago, that are more concerned with social learning than production of static art objects, and more recent forms of radical materialism centred on cultural cognition of threats to the biosphere and human life support and that in turn challenge to intensifying social inequities.

2015 Oct 14 site planning Alex - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Just as important as generating a beneficial ecological impact through nurturing traditional local gene pools, habitats and communities, we make ‘installations’ and archives with what we can find from recycled paper and ink to digital photographs, videos and text made with old computers and mobile telephones and reworked versions of software and apps. So in a time of new forms of impoverishment for artists, our approach is aggressive in the mixing of discarded and repurposed media taking inspiration from the minimalism and disregard for polish of the Arte Povera movement of Italy in the 1970s.

fruit agriculture culture

This site only holds the work of Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram. Collaborative work completed in this project is posted at www.castlegrunenfelderingram.space/perdu.

permaculture impermanent culture

In using this site, the categories listed on the left, seen after further scrolling, link to particular aspects of project development and specific works. Each of these categories represents a longer-term project that we hope to explore more fully in coming years.

Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram of castle grünenfelder ingram

decolonial public art

Canada Council logo

A portion of the total travel costs of Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram has been paid by the Canada Council for the Arts.

Canada Council logo

The bulk of support to complete this work is being provided by the Utopiana artist centre of Geneva which is supported by an array of local and regional agencies and organizations.

utopiana demolition Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 Sept urban bosques - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

project bibliography: 2. cultivation as contemporary culture: sites | public space | plants as art interventions

A 2014 – 2018 collaboration of castle grünenfelder ingram

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

#4 Utopiana garden (Vernier - Geneva - Switzerland) 1 castle&ingram

bibliography heading

compiled bibliographies for project:  2017 February 20 bibliography À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu

  1. cultivation as contemporary culture: sites | public space | plants as art interventions

 

Benner, Ron. 2008. Gardens of a Colonial Present / Jardins d’un Present Colonial. London, Ontario: London Museum.

Beuys, Joseph. 1982. 7000 Eichen – Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung) / 7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration. Kassel, Hesse: documenta 7.

Brenson, Michael. 1990. Review: Art – Plaster as a Medium, Not Just an Interim Step (Alan Sonfist, Max Protetch Gallery). New York Times (July 13, 1990).

Brooks, Katherine. 2014. This One Tree Grows 40 Different Types Of Fruit, Is Probably From The Future. The Huffington Post (July 24, 2014) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/24/tree-of-40-fruit_n_5614935.html

Bunting, Madeleine. 2009. The rise of climate-change art. Guardian (London)(2 December, 2009).

Burns, David, Matias Viegener and Austin Young. 2005. FALLENFRUIT Manifesto. http://www.fallenfruit.org/wp-content/uploads/FF-manifesto-handout.pdf

Caruth, Nicole J. 2012. The Growing Trend. Big Red & Shiny (December 12, 2012). http://bigredandshiny.org/16762/the-growing-trend/

Cave, Damien. 2012. Mexico City Journal: Lush Walls Rise to Fight a Blanket of Pollution. New York Times: April 9, 2012

Fitzzaland, Elizabeth. 2015. Putting the ‘farm’ in farmland – The Burgoyne Valley Community Farm on Salt Spring Island – Aqua (Salt Spring Island) (10)2: 26-30. http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk//launch.aspx?eid=9fea0657-4182-4d17-8543-ef2b5f74b880

Gallardo, Francisco Javier Fernández. 2014. biodiverCITY, the cocktail book, notes on how to taste soil, bees, ecosystems and networks of organisms — including humans. Else 0 (October 2014): 26 – 35.

Goodyear, Dana. 2012. Eat A Free Peach: Mapping “Public Fruit.” The New Yorker (MARCH 12, 2012). http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/eat-a-free-peach-mapping-public-fruit

Hay. Daisy. 2010. Young Romantics: The Tangled Lives of English Poetry’s Greatest Generation. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Hirshey, Gerri. 2008. Why Fight Invasive Vines? Just Turn Them Into Art – WOMAN VS. NATURE Laura Spector wrestling with some Celastrus orbiculata. New York Times (March 30, 2008).

Kelly, Caleb and Ross Gibson. 2010. Contemporary Art & The Noise of TENDING. Interference A Journal of Audio Culture (Dublin) 4. http://www.interferencejournal.com/articles/noise/the-noise-of-tending

Kent, Elizabeth. 1823. Flora domestica, or, The portable flower-garden: with directions for the treatment of plants in pots and illustrations from the works of the poets. London: Taylor and Hessey.  https://archive.org/details/floradomesticaor00kent

Landi, Ann. 2011. Separating the Trees from the Forest: Alan Sonfist has built a career as an urban land artist. ARTnews (Summer 2011) (POSTED 08/15/11 5:58 PM). http://www.artnews.com/2011/08/15/separating-the-trees-from-the-forest/

Linklater, Duane. 2012. Untitled (a raspberry garden for 21st. St.). In conjunction with Bard Centre for Curatorial Studies and Family Business Gallery. The opening of the exhibition consisted of a 45 minute talk with Wil Heinrich. An event several weeks later took place in which poet Layli Longsoldier read her series of poems Whereas – a pointed poetic response to President Barrack Obama’s little known apology to Native Americans in 2010. http://www.duanelinklater.com/index.php?/raspberry/

Mafi, Nick. 2015. Designer Gavin Munro Casts Trees Into Beautiful Furnishings. Architectural Digest (April 24, 2015) http://www.architecturaldigest.com/blogs/daily/2015/04/furniture-grown-from-trees

Prigann, H. and H Strelow (editors). 2004. Ecological Aesthetics: Art in environmental design theory and practice. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser.

Reynolds, Richard. 2008. Guerrilla Gardening. London: Bloomsbury.

Riedelsheimer, Thomas (director). 2011. Jardin en el mar ( Garden in the Sea). (Mexico, Germany, 2011, 69 mins, HDCAM video).

Rosenberg, Karen. 2008. ART REVIEW | ‘IMPLANT’ – Yes, the Live Music Is Lovely, but Will the Plants Like It? New York Times (August 7, 2008).

Salkeld, Lauren interviewed Sam Van Aken. N.D. The Tree of 40 Fruit Is Exactly as Awesome as It Sounds. epicurious.com. http://www.epicurious.com/archive/chefsexperts/interviews/sam-van-aken-interview

Sonfist, Alan, Wolfgang Becker, and Robert Rosenblum. 2004. Nature, The End of Art: Environmental Landscapes. New York: Distributed Art Publishers.

Stone, Dan. 2013. Seattle’s Free Food Experiment. National Geographic Magazine (April 29, 2013). http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2013/04/29/seattles-free-food-experiment/

SUPERFLEX. 2003. Tools: Guaraná Power. http://www.superflex.net/tools/guarana_powerhttp://www.guaranapower.org/

Thompson, Claire. 2012. Into the woods: Seattle plants a public food forest. Grist. http://grist.org/urban-agriculture/into-the-woods-seattle-plants-a-public-food-forest/

Viegener, Matias. 2015. Speculative Futures: Social practice, cognitive capitalism and / or the triumph of capital. in Informal Market Worlds: The Architecture of Economic Pressure. Peter Mörtenböeck and Helge Mooshammer (eds.). Rotterdam: nai010.

http://mviegener.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Viegener-Matias-Speculative-Futures-Social-Practice-Cognitive-Capitalism-andor-the-Triumph-of-Capital.pdf

Wark, Mckenzie. 2015. Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene. London: Verso.

 

Wikipedia. 2015. BioArt. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BioArt

project bibliography: 3. introgression: evolving Northern Hemisphere fruit tree gene pools & biocultures

A 2014 – 2018 collaboration of castle grünenfelder ingram

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

#5 Utopiana mosaic 3 castle&ingram

bibliography heading

 

compiled project bibliographies: 2017 February 20 bibliography À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu

 

  1. introgression: evolving Northern Hemisphere fruit tree gene pools & biocultures

Berkes, Fikret. 2012. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251 – 162.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke eds. 2003. Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press

Campa, Ana, Noemí Trabanco, Elena Pérez-Vega1, Mercé Rovira and Juan J. Ferreira. 2011. Genetic relationship between cultivated and wild hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) collected in northern Spain. Plant Breeding 130(3): 360–366. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2010.01835.x/abstract

Coart, Xavier Vekemans, Marinus J M Smulders, Iris Wagner, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, and Erik Van Bockstaele. 2003. Genetic variation in the endangered wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) in Belgium as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology 12(4):845-57.

Coart, E, S Van Glabeke, M. De Loose, A.S. Larsen, and I. Roldán-Ruiz. 2006. Chloroplast diversity in the genus Malus: new insights into the relationship between the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) and the domesticated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Molecular Ecology 15(8):2171-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16780433

Deur, Douglas. 2002. Rethinking precolonial plant cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Professional Geographer 54: 140 – 157.

Deur, Douglas. 2005. Tending the garden, making the soil: Northwest Coast estuarine gardens as engineered environments. In Keeping It Living’: Traditions of Plant Use and cultivation on the Northwest coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner (editors). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 296 – 330.

Glausiusz, Josie. 2014. Apples of Eden: Saving the Wild Ancestor of Modern Apples – The original apples still grow in Central Asia, but are threatened with extinction. National Geographic (MAY 09, 2014). http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/apples-of-eden-saving-the-wild-ancestor-of-modern-apples/

Gremli, August. 1889. The flora of Switzerland for the use of tourists and field-botanists. Fifth Edition (Leonard W. Paitson trans.). London: David Nutt (Printed in Zurich).

Hanelt, Peter. 1997. Eurropean wild relatives of Prunus fruit crops. Bocconea 7: 401-408. http://www.herbmedit.org/bocconea/7-401.pdf

Héribaud-Joseph (frère). 1891. Analyse descriptive des Rubus du plateau central de la France. Clermont-Ferrand: Rousseau Libraire-Editeur.

Honoré, Tiphaine. 2012. Agroforestry, the traditional practice of growing crops around trees, is regaining popularity in parts of France. Guardian (21 August, 2012). http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/aug/21/agroforestry-france-farming-revival

Hummer, Kim E. 1996. Rubus diversity. Hortscience 31(2) (APRIL 1996): 182 – 183. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/31/2/182

Jacques, Dominique, Kristine Vandermijnsbrugge, Sébastein Lemaire, Adriana Antofie and Marc Lateur. 2009. Natural Distribution and Variability of Wild Apple (Malus Sylvestris) in Belgium. Belgian Journal of Botany 142(1): 39-49. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20794670

Keller, Ferdinand. 1878. The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and Other Parts of Europe, Volume 1. London: Longmans, Green, and Company.

Kole, Chittaranjan (editor). 2011. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources – Temperate Fruits. New York: Springer.

Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2005 Documenting pre-contact plant management on the Northwest Coast. An example of prescribed burning in the central and upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. in Keeping it Living: Traditions of plant use and cultivation on the Northwest Coast. Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner (editors). Seattle: UW Press / Vancouver: UBC Press. 2018 – 39.

Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2008. Documenting ancient plant management in the Northwest of North America. Botany 86: 129 – 145.

Manley, W.F., 2002, Postglacial Flooding of the Bering Land Bridge: A Geospatial Animation: Boulder, Colorado: INSTAAR, University of Colorado. http://instaar.colorado.edu/QGISL/bering_land_bridge

Maubon, Michel, Jean-Fran¸cois Ponge, Jean Andre. 1995. Dynamics of Vaccinium myrtillus patches in mountain spruce forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 6(3) 343-348. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00505508/document

Meltzer, David J. 2009. First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Moss, Madonna L, Dorthy M Peteet, and Cathy Whitlock. 2007. Mid-Holocene culture and climate on the Northwest coast of North America. in Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics: A Global Perspective on Mid-Holocene Transitions. David G Anderson, Kirk A Maasch and Daniel H Sandweiss (editors). San Diego: Elsevier and Academic Press. 491 – 529.

Parrotta, John A. and Ronald L. Trosper (editors). 2012. Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge: Sustaining Communities, Ecosystems and Biocultural Diversity. New York: Springer.

Pollan, Michael. 1998. Breaking Ground: The Call of the Wild Apple. New York Times (November 5, 1998).

Pollmann, Britta, Stefanie Jacomet, and Angela Schlumbaum 2005. Morphological and genetic studies of waterlogged Prunus species from the Roman Vicus Tasgetium (Eschenz, Switzerland). Journal of Archaeological Science. 32(10):1471–1480. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440305000853

Renfrew, Jane M. 1973. Palaeoethnobotany: The Prehistoric Food Plants of the Near East and Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.

Robinson, S. P., S. A. Harris, and B. E. Juniper. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh. Plant Systematics and Evolution 226(1-2): 35 – 58.

Routson, Kanin J. 2012 Malus diversity in wild and agricultural systems. PhD dissertation University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Routson, Kanin J, G M Volk, C M Richards, S E Smith, G P Nabhan, and V Whyllie de Echeverria. 2012. Genetic variation and distribution of Pacific crabapple. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 137(5): 325 – 332.

Sauer, Jonathan D. 1993. Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster. London CRC Press

Schnitzler, Annik, Claire Arnold, Amandine Cornille, Olivier Bachmann, and Christophe Schnitzler. 2014. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. PLOS| One (May 14, 2014) DOI:  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0096596

Senos, Rene, Frank Lake, Nancy J Turner, and Dennis Martinez. 2006. Traditional ecological knowledge and restoration practice in the Pacific Northwest. in Encyclopedia for Restoration of Pacific Northwest Ecosystems. Dean Apostal (editor). Washington DC: Island. 393 – 426.

Suttles, Wayne P. 1974. Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians: The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. New York: Garland.

Suttles, Wayne P. 2005 Coast Salish Resource Management: Incipient Agriculture? in Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner (editors). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 181 – 93.

Tavaud, M., A. Zanetto, J. L. David, F Laigret and E. Dirlewanger. 2004. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus xgondouinii and Prunus cerasus). Heredity 93(6): 631–638.

Teeling, Claire. 2012. In situ conservation of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Europe. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham. http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/4390/

Teeling, C., N. Maxted and B. V. Ford-Lloyd. 2012. The challenges of modelling species distribution: A case study of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Europe. in Agrobiodiversity Conservation: Securing the Diversity of Crop Wild Relatives and Landraces. Nigel Maxted, Mohammad E. Dulloo, Brian V. Ford-Lloyd, Lothar Frese, Jose M. Iriondo, and Miguel A. A. Pinheiro de Carvalho (editors). Egham, Surrey UK: CABI. 29 – 35.

Trosper, Ronald. 2002. Northwest coast indigenous institutions that supported resilience and sustainability. Ecological Economics 41: 329 – 344.

Trosper, Ronald L. 2003. Resilience in pre-contact Pacific Northwest social ecological systems. Conservation Ecology 7(3): 6. http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss3/art6/

Trosper, Ronald. 2009. Resilience, Reciprocity and Ecological Economics: Northwest Coast Sustainability. New York: Routledge.

Turner, Nancy J. 2003. Passing on the news: Women’s work, traditional knowledge and plant resource management in indigenous societies of northwestern North America. in Women and Plants: Case studies on gender relations in local plant genetic resource management. P. L. Howard (editor). London: Zed Books. 133 – 149.

Turner, Nancy J. 2009. ‘It’s so different today’: Climate change and indigenous lifeways in British Columbia, Canada. in Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change. Jan Salick and Nanci Ross (editors). special issues Global Environmental Change 19: 180 – 190.

Turner, Nancy J. 2014A. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Volume 1: The History and Practice of Indigenous Plant Knowledge. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Turner, Nancy J. 2014B. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Volume Two – The Place and Meaning of Plants in Indigenous Cultures and Worldviews. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Turner, Nancy J and Fikret Berkes. 2006. Coming to understanding: Developing conservation through incremental learning. in Developing Resource Management and Conservation. Fikret Berkes and Nancy J Turner (editors). Special issue. Human Ecology 34(4): 495 – 513.

Turner, Nancy J and Iain J Davidson-Hunt, and M O’Flaherty. 2003. ‘Living on the Edge’ Ecological and cultural edges as sources of diversity for social-ecological resilience. Human Ecology 31 (3): 31 – 47.

Wagner, Iris, W.D. Maurer, P. Lemmen, H.P. Schmitt, M. Wagner, and M. Binder. 2014. Hybridization and Genetic Diversity in Wild Apple (Malus_sylvestris (L.) MILL) from Various Regions in Germany and from Luxembourg. Silvae Genetica 63(3):81-94.  http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270450148_Hybridization_and_Genetic_Diversity_in_Wild_Apple_(Malus_sylvestris_(L.)_MILL)_from_Various_Regions_in_Germany_and_from_Luxembourg

Weber, Heinrich E. 1997. Two new Rubus species from Switzerland and other parts of Central Europe. Botanica Helvetica 107(2): 211-220. http://eurekamag.com/research/009/684/009684485.php

Wyllie de Echeverria, Victoria. 2013 Moolks (Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca) on the North Coast of British Columbia: Knowledge and meaning in Gitga’at Culture. MSc thesis University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia.

Zohary, Daniel, Maria Hopf, and Ehud Weiss. 2012. Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The origin and spread of domesticated plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

The Tree Question: Field research & cultivation practices in community-based public art in an age of ecological crises

2016 April 25 presentation Geneva University of Art & Design

Trans – Mediation, Education, * Haute École d’art et de design Genève HEAD

bosque-section-presqueperdu-Gordon-Brent-Brochu-Ingram-small

abstract: 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘tree’ presentation

bilingual notes: (trad) 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘tree’ presentation

powerpoint: 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘The Tree Question’ PowerPoint

title of The Tree Question

abstract

Since the pioneering 1982 intervention by Joseph Beuys, the 7000 Eichen – Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung) / 7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration, tree planting, and cultivation more generally, have increasingly become contemporary art practice. Employment of such cultivation interventions, as contemporary art and not as landscape architecture, have nearly always used as a way to challenge particular notions and demarcations of the ‘public’, on one hand, and experiences of communities, landscapes and ecosystems, on the other hand. Such a set of oppositional tactics often contrasts itself with professionalized landscape architecture more often employed to re-enforce the status quo of public space. And since documenta 7, a raft of experimental artists have rifted on notions of agriculture (and silviculture, horticulture, and permaculture) as visual culture most notably Alan Sonfist (et al 2014, Landi 2011), Ron Benner (2008), the Fallen Fruit collective (Goodyear 2012), and Sam Van Aken (Brooks 2014). But precisely how ‘contemporary’ are such tree planting ‘works’ and how are associated practices and conceptualizations changing as ecological crises intensify, as cultural signifiers shift, as access to scientific information increases, and as data sources and ecological and social paradigms diversify? And how do these Western and often Eurocentric aesthetic movements, involving trees and urban space, construct relationships with recoveries and practices of indigenous communities often at odds with modernity?

 

One point of inquiry is provided by Claire Bishop’s 2012 note that, “Beuys drew a conceptual line between his output as a sculptor and his discursive / pedagogic work” (page 245), the latter including his tree planting. But if cultivation is more of a conceptual disruptor and teaching opportunity than part of artistic production to produce an art work, why does the aesthetic importance of trees for interventions in public space continue to increase? A more problematic and indefinite set of questions derive from the divergent and shifting uses of tree planting in contemporary culture. For example, there is no sign that the 1982 intervention in Kassel was intended to contribute to carbon sequestration or to conserve local habitat and species, or to build community through sharing fruit as in the recent tree planting work in Los Angeles of Fallen Fruit. Today, it would be difficult to plant a tree, as a contemporary art work, without professed relationships to countering climate change, gentrification, and homelessness and contributing to carbon sequestration, food security, and social equity. So like painting, drawing, and sculpture, the basic ‘materials’ of tree planting, however organic, are infinitely pliable — as long as respective organisms and ecosystems can survive and be part of public space. There is an implicit aesthetic of survival.

 

What are the diverse roles of science in these forms of artistic research? In particular, how does tree-planting-as-contemporary-art challenge, expand, and re-enforce broader art movements such as,

  1. various forms of community participation as art (embodied in the work of Suzanne Lacey and Martha Rosler),
  2. scientific experimentation as in ‘wetware’ and biological modification,
  3. traditional knowledge and other indigenous experiences,
  4. relational aesthetics as new forms of education and community aesthetic engagement, and
  5. micro-urban tactics that transform multiple publics?

Or do the heightened skills and artifice required to sufficiently manipulate a site in deteriorating environments, to insure that trees will thrive, represent another kind of cultivation of culture that signals a new and more tenuous phase of the “Anthropocene” (Wark 2015)? In other words, are the creative perspectives and practices of contemporary artists, particularly collaboratives and collectives, increasingly necessary to keep communities, ecosystems, and public spaces ‘alive’, diverse, and evolving?

 

Brochu-Ingram presents some early results from some of his ongoing investigations, designs, and interventions in the Vancouver and Geneva regions.

 

references

Benner, Ron. 2008. Gardens of a Colonial Present / Jardins d’un Present Colonial. London, Ontario: London Museum.

Beuys, Joseph. 1982. 7000 Eichen – Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung) / 7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration. Kassel, Hesse: documenta 7.

Bishop, Claire. 2012. Artificial Hells: Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship. New York: Verso.

Brooks, Katherine. 2014. This One Tree Grows 40 Different Types Of Fruit, Is Probably From The Future. The Huffington Post (July 24, 2014)

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/24/tree-of-40-fruit_n_5614935.html

Goodyear, Dana. 2012. Eat A Free Peach: Mapping “Public Fruit.” The New Yorker (March 12, 2012). http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/eat-a-free-peach-mapping-public-fruit

Landi, Ann. 2011. Separating the Trees from the Forest: Alan Sonfist has built a career as an urban land artist. ARTnews (Summer 2011) (POSTED 08/15/11 5:58 PM). http://www.artnews.com/2011/08/15/separating-the-trees-from-the-forest/

Sonfist, Alan, Wolfgang Becker, and Robert Rosenblum. 2004. Nature, The End of Art: Environmental Landscapes. New York: Distributed Art Publishers.

Wark, Mckenzie. 2015. Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene. London: Verso.

Some circumpolar tree crop gene pools spanning Western Europe & Pacific Canada

2015 Utopiana, Geneva, themed residency ‘La Bête et l’adversité’

A collaboration of castle grünenfelder ingram
À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture:
The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

2006 June 30 crabapple Belly-Rising-Up - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2006 June 30 Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, 
Belly-Rising protected landscape, 
south-eastern corner of Tsawout Indian Reserve, 
Saanich, Vancouver Island

Some circumpolar tree crop gene pools
spanning Western Europe & Pacific Canada

 

Well over five crop gene pools are spread in an almost continuous arc from Western Europe, through Eurasia, to North America. We focus on four gene pools that produce fruit and that can thrive in small, urban public spaces:

Malus species including apple, pear and crabapple;

Prunus species including plum and cherries;

Corylus species all producing similar kinds of hazelnuts;

Rubus including raspberry and blackberry;

and

Vaccinium including blueberries and huckleberries.

2007 June 5 Salish crabapple - Malus fusca - Belly-Rising-Up Tsawout Saanich - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2007 June 5 Salish crabapple, Malus fusca, 
Belly-Rising-Up protected landscape, 
south-eastern corner of Tsawout Indian Reserve,
Saanich, Vancouver Island

The many species in these gene pools were shaped by traditional communities in both Eurasia and the Americas and our project here explores the contemporary knowledge and engagements with these gene pools in the region around Geneva spanning Romandie and eastern France and a similarly sized region on the West Coast of North America: around the Salish Sea including the metropolitan areas of Vancouver and Seattle. There is an increasing body of knowledge suggesting that some of the populations of these fruit trees on the West Coast of North America have been enriched by marine and land-based peoples moving east across the now-inundated land bridge, Beringia, at various periods over the last 14,000 years.

Analyses descriptive du RUBUS 1891

Both regions share similar latitudes and climates but differ markedly in their relationship to colonial and decolonial processes. Switzerland, as a whole, thrived on the edges of the Western European empires and that legacy is the basis of new, multinational corporate ventures that while undermining local traditional knowledge about fruit crops has not been lethal to local communities.

crab-apple 21 6 2004 Belly-Rising-Up - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2004 June 21 Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, 
Belly-Rising protected landscape, 
south-eastern corner of Tsawout Indian Reserve, 
Saanich, Vancouver Island

In contrast, the Salish Sea gene pools, modified and managed for millennia by indigenous Salish language-speaking communities, are under threat not only from habitat change but from the loss of local languages and the cultural knowledge to which it is tied. In this context, a growing body of legal decisions have given Salish communities in Canada a basis to intervene to protect traditional lands and resources.

Swiss Flora for Tourists 1889

Curiously, a number of mid-19th Century fruit trees, planted by the first settlers, have naturalized and hybridized with local species. These introgression processes can be important for the evolution and survival of these wild and traditional tree crop populations, thickets and orchards especially in the face of climate change and environmental stress.

Rubus 1889 The Flora of Switzerland

In exploring the exploring ways to reintroduce individual trees and small orchards, of these progenitor populations, into the public spaces of both urban Geneva and Vancouver – Seattle, we are exploring the following wild and traditional tree crop species and their associated human cultures.

West Coast of Canada / Salish Sea / Puget Sound*
MALUS (apple, pear, crabapple)
Malus fusca
PRUNUS (plum & cherry)
Prunus emarginata
Prunus virginiana
CORYLUS (hazelnut)
Corylus cornuta
RUBUS (raspberry & blackberry)
Rubus leucodermis Rubus parviflorus
Rubus spectabilis Rubus ursinus
VACCINIUM (blueberry, cranberry, huckleberry)
Vaccinium ovatum Vaccinium oxycoccos Vaccinium parvifolium
*(with a focus on the Gulf Islands the location of KEXMIN field station)

imprint - Analyses descriptive du RUBUS 1891

While based at Utopiana, we will searching out the following species and associated communities and cultural landscapes.

Western Europe with a focus on Switzerland, France, and adjacent regions
MALUS (apple, pear)
Malus sylvestris
We may well also find populations that could better correspond to some the following labels.
Malus acerba
Malus communis
Malus dasyphylla
Malus florentina
Malus praecox
Malus pumila
Malus trilobata

PRUNUS (plum & cherry)
Prunus avium
Prunus brigantina
Prunus cerasifera
Prunus cerasus
Prunus cocomilia
Prunus fruticosa
Prunus mahaleb
Prunus prostrata
Prunus pumila
Prunus spinosa
If there is time and over the longer term, we may search out populations elsewhere in Europe with labels such as the following:
Prunus fruticans
Prunus laurocerasus
Pruns ramburii
Prunus serotina
Prunus tenella
Prunus webbii

CORYLUS (hazelnut)
Corylus avellana

RUBUS (raspberry & blackberry)
The nomenclature of Rubus species in Western Europe is fabulously unstable and overlapping. So we expect to encounter species that correspond to these labels and well as those associated with more modernized taxonomies.
Rubus australis
Rubus catsius
Rubus cesius
Rubus foliis
Rubus fruticosus
Rubus hispidus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus idzus
Rubus landoltii
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus rhombicus
Rubus rosaefolius
Rubus saxitilis
Rubus tomentosus

VACCINIUM (blueberry and cranberry)
Vaccinium microcarpum
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea

2004 June 21 blackcap - Rubus leucodermis Belly-Rising-Up Tsawout - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram2004 June 21 blackcap raspberry, 
Rubus leucodermis, 
Belly-Rising-Up protected landscape, 
south-eastern corner of Tsawout Indian Reserve, 
Saanich, Vancouver Island

 

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Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251 – 162.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke eds. 2003. Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press

Campa, Ana, Noemí Trabanco, Elena Pérez-Vega1, Mercé Rovira and Juan J. Ferreira. 2011. Genetic relationship between cultivated and wild hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) collected in northern Spain. Plant Breeding 130(3): 360–366. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2010.01835.x/abstract

Coart, Xavier Vekemans, Marinus J M Smulders, Iris Wagner, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, and Erik Van Bockstaele. 2003. Genetic variation in the endangered wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) in Belgium as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology 12(4):845-57.

Coart, E, S Van Glabeke, M. De Loose, A.S. Larsen, and I. Roldán-Ruiz. 2006. Chloroplast diversity in the genus Malus: new insights into the relationship between the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) and the domesticated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Molecular Ecology 15(8):2171-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16780433

Deur, Douglas. 2002. Rethinking precolonial plant cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Professional Geographer 54: 140 – 157.

Deur, Douglas. 2005. Tending the garden, making the soil: Northwest Coast estuarine gardens as engineered environments. ‘In Keeping It Living’: Traditions of Plant Use and cultivation on the Northwest coast of North America. ed. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner 296 – 330. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Glausiusz, Josie. 2014. Apples of Eden: Saving the Wild Ancestor of Modern Apples – The original apples still grow in Central Asia, but are threatened with extinction. National Geographic (MAY 09, 2014). http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/apples-of-eden-saving-the-wild-ancestor-of-modern-apples/

Gremli, August. 1889. The flora of Switzerland for the use of tourists and field-botanists. Fifth Edition (Leonard W. Paitson trans.). London: David Nutt (Printed in Zurich).

Hanelt, Peter. 1997. Eurropean wild relatives of Prunus fruit crops. Bocconea 7: 401-408. http://www.herbmedit.org/bocconea/7-401.pdf

Héribaud-Joseph (frère). 1891. Analyse descriptive des Rubus du plateau central de la France. Clermont-Ferrand: Rousseau Libraire-Editeur.

Honoré, Tiphaine. 2012. Agroforestry, the traditional practice of growing crops around trees, is regaining popularity in parts of France. The Guardian (21 August, 2012). http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/aug/21/agroforestry-france-farming-revival

Hummer, Kim E. 1996. Rubus diversity. Hortscience 31(2) (APRIL 1996): 182 – 183. http:/ hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/31/2/182.full.pdf

Jacques, Dominique, Kristine Vandermijnsbrugge, Sébastein Lemaire, Adriana Antofie and Marc Lateur. 2009. Natural Distribution and Variability of Wild Apple (Malus Sylvestris) in Belgium. Belgian Journal of Botany 142(1): 39-49. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20794670

Keller, Ferdinand. 1878. The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and Other Parts of Europe, Volume 1. London: Longmans, Green, and Company. (p. 187 evidence of Rubus fruticosus and Rubus cesius)

Kole, Chittaranjan (editor). 2011. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources – Temperate Fruits. New York: Springer.

Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2005 Documenting pre-contact plant management on the Northwest Coast. An example of prescribed burning in the central and upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. in Keeping it Living: Traditions of plant use and cultivation on the Northwest Coast. Deur and Turner (eds.). 2018 – 39. Seattle: UW Press / Vancouver: UBC Press.

Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2008. Documenting ancient plant management in the Northwest of North America. Botany 86: 129 – 145.

Manley, W.F., 2002, Postglacial Flooding of the Bering Land Bridge: A Geospatial Animation: INSTAAR, University of Colorado, v1, http://instaar.colorado.edu/QGISL/bering_land_bridge.

Maubon, Michel, Jean-Fran¸cois Ponge, Jean Andre. 1995. Dynamics of Vaccinium myrtillus patches in mountain spruce forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 6(3) 343-348. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00505508/document

Meltzer, David J. 2009. First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Moss, Madonna L, Dorthy M Peteet, and Cathy Whitlock. 2007. Mid-Holocene culture and climate on the Northwest coast of North America. in Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics: A Global Perspective on Mid-Holocene Transitions. ed David G Anderson, Kirk A Maasch and Daniel H Sandweiss, 491 – 529. San Diego: Elsevier and Academic Press.

Parrotta, John A. and Ronald L. Trosper (editors.) Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge. New York: Springer.

Pollan, Michael. 1998. Breaking Ground: The Call of the Wild Apple. The New York Times (November 5, 1998).

Pollmann, Britta, Stefanie Jacomet, and Angela Schlumbaum 2005. Morphological and genetic studies of waterlogged Prunus species from the Roman vicus Tasgetium (Eschenz, Switzerland). Journal of Archaeological Science. 32(10):1471–1480. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440305000853

Renfrew, Jane M. 1973. Palaeoethnobotany: The Prehistoric Food Plants of the Near East and Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.

Robinson, S. P., S. A. Harris, and B. E. Juniper. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh. Plant Systematics and Evolution 226(1-2): 35 – 58.

Routson, Kanin J. 2012 Malus diversity in wild and agricultural systems. PhD diss. University of Arizona.

Routson, Kanin J, G M Volk, C M Richards, S E Smith, G P Nabhan, and V Whyllie de Echeverria. 2012. Genetic variation and distribution of Pacific crabapple. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 137(5): 325 – 332.

Sauer, Jonathan D. 1993. Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster. London CRC Press

Schnitzler, Annik, Claire Arnold, Amandine Cornille, Olivier Bachmann, and Christophe Schnitzler. 2014. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. PLOS| One (May 14, 2014) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096596
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Senos, Rene, Frank Lake, Nancy J Turner, and Dennis Martinez. 2006. Traditional ecological knowledge and restoration practice in the Pacific Northwest. in Encyclopedia for Rstoration of Pacific Northwest Ecosystems, ed. Dean Apostal 393 – 426. Washington DC: Island.

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Suttles, Wayne P. 2005 Coast Salish Resource Management: Incipient Agriculture? in Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner (eds.). 181 – 93. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

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remote sensing: 2014 Geneva studies

0 rhone neo-psychadelic 2

In the spring of 2014, Utopiana asked us to develop the project from the proposal for

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

for Geneva in late 2015. I started recalling the score times that I have visited Geneva.

 

There was a realization, that I knew very little about that corner of the city and the area along the river between the lake and the border with France. So I used Google Earth to isolate some images of the Rhône, distilling its basic spatial form, and then viewed the Vernier neighbourhood along the Rhône, and then a curiously revealing scene of the Utopiana building and its garden.

 

The following are some of the images from the study as organized through scale and process as,

  1. the shape of the Rhône,

2. the Vernier neighbourhood around Utopiana,

3. the Utopiana house and gardens,

4. montages of this information in strips, and

5. more complex montages.

 

In late 2015 while based at Utopiana, some of these files will be expanded with text inserted into much larger images. To a large extent, this work is as literary as it is visual.

1. the shape of the Rhône

2 rhone outline (blue river on white 4)

1 rhone outline (turquoise river on white 2) castle&ingram

3 rhone outline (red river)

5 rhone outline 5 monochrome outline

8 rhone outline (white river) monochrome outline

7 rhone outline (turquoise river on black 3)

2. the Vernier neighbourhood around Utopiana

1 neighbourhood (reticulated 2) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2 neighbourhood (high contrast 3) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 4 neighbourhood (psychadelic) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 5 neighbourhood (psychadelic inverted) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 6 neighbourhood (reds & light greens) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram  8 neighbourhood (pink reticulated inverted) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 9 neighbourhood (high contrast inverted 2) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 10 neighbourhood (pink reticulated inverted)castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

3. the Utopiana house and gardens

*utopiana yard castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 0 utopiana yard (saturated)castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram  2 utopiana yard (fauvism 3) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 4 utopiana yard (saturated) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 5 utopiana yard (blue & brown 2) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 6 utopiana yard (monochrome 2) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 7 utopiana yard (fauvist green & purple) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 8 utopiana yard (inverted blue & brown) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 9 utopiana yard (blue & gold) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 10 utopiana yard (monochrome 3) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 12 utopiana yard (very pink) castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

4. montages of this information in strips

castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 4 Utopiana strip 1 castle&ingram 5 Utopiana strip 2 castle&ingram 6 Utopiana strip 3 castle&ingram 7 Utopiana strip 4 castle&ingram 8 Utopiana strip 5 castle&ingram 9 Utopiana strip 6 castle&ingram

11 Utopiana strip 8 castle&ingram 12 Utopiana strip 9 castle&ingram 13 Utopiana strip 10 castle&ingram 14 Utopiana yard strip castle&ingram Utopiana strip 1 castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram Utopiana strip 2 castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram Utopiana strip 3 castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram Utopiana strip 4 castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram Utopiana strip 5 castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram Utopiana strip 6 castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

5. more complex montages (and narratives)

2014 April 17 Utopiana - Geneva - satellite scene context study complex montage #1 castle&ingram - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram Utopiana mosaic 1 castle&ingram Utopiana mosaic 2 castle&ingram Utopiana mosaic 3 castle&ingram Utopiana mosaic 4 castle&ingram

 

 

 

initial proposal: À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

PDF copy available: castle & ingram 2014 proposal Utopiana Geneva

castle & ingram

Julian Castle

Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram BFA MSc PhD

side stream environmental design

 

February 12, 2014

Proposal for a transdisciplinary residency from

August through October 2015 at

Utopiana, Geneva for Nature, adversity, etc.

crab-apple-21-6-2004-Belly-Rising-Up-by-Gordon-Brent-Ingram

 

proposal title 

contents

  • synopsis                                                               2
  • introduction                                                        4
  • problem statement                                            5
  • themes                                                                  5
  • theoretical influences                                        6
  • duration of proposed residency                       7
  • artistic product                                                    7
  • media                                                                     8
  • languages                                                              9
  • community engagement                                    9
  • biographies                                                           9
  • internet documentation of

‘side stream’ work by Castle & Ingram               11

  • vitae: Gordon Brent Ingram
  • vitae: Julian Castle

 



proposal title

synopsis

This proposal for a 2015 residency at Utopiana centres on aesthetic responses to both the increasing disappearance of heritage food crops, especially perennials such as tree crops, and the confluence of more expansive notions of ‘decolonisation’ and decolonial aesthetics as played out in contemporary garden interventions as works of contemporary public art.

 

Two different spaces, territories, and kinds of crop disappearance would be explored:

  1. the disappearance of some traditional crops and crop varieties of the Geneva, Vaud, other parts of francophone, ‘Romandy’ Switzerland along with the Pay du Gex and
  2. the traditional food plants of the Salish, the indigenous communities around an area with a similar climate and landform to Geneva, of the Strait of Georgia of Pacific Canada including the cities of Vancouver and Victoria.

 

This residency would focus on field research, semi-structure interviews, and assembling graphic documentation (mainly photographic, video, and in situ work and cultivation in the Utopiana garden) of these disappearing crops, their food uses, various disappearance (‘genetic erosion’) factors, and conservation responses especially,

  1. heritage orchards and gardens,
  2. ‘field gene banks’ often maintained by scientific and corporate bodies, community gardens,
  3. laboratories and in vitro storage,
  4. archives on a particular crop or agricultural community, and
  5. more contemporary forms of aesthetic-based public interventions such as ‘guerrilla gardening’ and related viticulture and tree crop planting, urban design, permaculture, and various collective projects such as the Los Angeles-based ‘Fallen Fruit’.

 

Artistic production for 2015 in Geneva would focus on interrogating, playing with, and diverging from Proustian notions of loss and alternatives to nostalgia as “temps perdu” morphing into “de certaines récoltes presque perdu” The timing of the residency would coincide with the time of year to plant a few perennial trees and bushes in the Utopiana garden in Geneva: in early autumn. The product of this 2015 residence would centre on documentation of a range of individuals and organizations in the Geneva region already concerned about “de certaines récoltes presque perdu” and mashing that imagery with comparable digital material of traditional Salish food plants (many of these species in the same gene pools as those around Geneva) around Vancouver and Victoria. There would be five venues of artistic production offered in Geneva and at La maison at avenue des Eidguenots 21, 1203 Genève:

 

  1. a website similar to a related project on green roofs (www.gordonbrentingram.ca/roof) with postings of text, photographs, video clips, and drawings;

 

  1. an archival component to the web-site that links information on these interventions Utopiana with relevant material and interventions involving the Geneva region and related artistic interventions;

 

  1. organization of an event series of an evening or afternoon every two weeks related to the projects involving the screening of videos and on-site, studio and gardening demonstrations and related performances, events, and talks;

 

  1. proposal and organization of the transfer of such ‘disappearing crops’ (from the Geneva region) into the garden of Utopiana (as per space availability and the interest of the organization) with respective discussions constituting art practices that would be documented and presented as part of production; and

 

  1. a proposed intervention into the public space of Geneva with a series of relatively professional designs (made in subsequent months to the residency), something of a whimsical piece of utopian fantasy, involving re-insertion of some disappearing, local crops with possibilities of the proposal material being exhibited in a gallery or community space in Geneva.

 

camas-spp.-Belly-Rising-Up-24-4-2005-by-Gordon-Brent-Ingram

camas, Camassia spp., Belly-Rising-Up, 24 April, 2005 by Gordon Brent Ingram

This tuberous, onion-like vegetable provides a unique sugar, that is used slowly, and was a staple for the Salish and is often used as a symbol of cultural and dietary renewal. Thousands of hectares of camas were maintained in fields well into the early 20th Century.

 

 

introduction

This proposed residency explores the confluence of,

 

  1. the growing aesthetic movements engaged with, gardens and interventions in gardens as contemporary public art;

 

  1. heritage food crops being displaced from landscapes, fields, and gardens and the wide range of conservation efforts from cultural to scientific (including a full range of organizational formations in the Geneva region from United Nations, NGOs, corporate, local government, grassroots movements, and cultural institutions; and

 

  1. decolonial aesthetics as they play out in Switzerland as a European country that was not a colonial force, but exists within a postcolonial matrix (and that sometimes forgets its highly cosmopolitan position within an only vaguely postcolonial continent).

 

The device that will activate these explorations is insertion and contrasting with the status of traditional Salish food plants of the region around Vancouver and Victoria in Pacific Canada[1]. This mountainous area is on an inland sea is at 49 degrees latitude and has roughly the climate of the Utopiana region at 47 degrees latitude though the weather of Vancouver and Victoria span a wider ranges similar to those of Nantes, Paris, and Geneva. And both regions have become expensive resorts oriented to the wealthy with agricultural production increasingly squeezed by suburbanization, hobby farms and ‘villas’, and rising labour costs. Both regions have a problematic situation around immigration of agricultural labour and retention of knowledge about traditional farming and crops.

 

In contrast to the similarities in climate and agricultural economics, the situation around disappearing food plants is diametrically different with traditional crops in the Geneva region being well-known (and better celebrated) and a raft of traditional Salish crops, increasingly erased since the colonial period in the 19th Century, are the verge of disappearance. And what is particularly ironic about the difference between the two regions is that many of the Salish food plants are ‘Eurasian’ in origin, established in Pacific Canada over the last 5,000 years, are in the same gene pools as those in the Geneva area (and could be planted there). Thus, Switzerland that has seen so much wealth from Amerindian crops, such as chocolate, has effectively no access to Salish onions, root crops, crab-apples, clovers that produce potato-like tubers, and numerous berries. And the plant knowledge around disappearing Geneva crops is in French, which as a language remains viable, whereas many of the Salish dialects are spoken by less then one hundred individuals with much plant knowledge found in the remaining word strings.

 

 

problem statement

While gardens and ‘permaculture’ are increasingly employed as respective sites and practices in contemporary site-based art, aesthetic interventions to remember and present information on disappearing crops (and rural cultures) and scientific responses to ‘genetic erosion’ have been largely neglected by artists. While there is a huge body of discussion on ‘permaculture’ practices in food production, gardens and urban design, critical examinations of disappearing crop knowledge, as culture, has been rarely contemporized. So the underlying response in this proposal for this series on ‘adversity’, that the greatest adversity is in forgetting with remembering the history of a site, community, or crop a kind of contemporary practice, has been poorly explored. Similarly, there are few discussions and critical examinations of the aesthetic practices and

theory around gardens and public art that have acknowledged decolonial aesthetics and

efforts to fully acknowledge local histories, the privileging of certain (agri)cultures and crops, and persisting social inequities.

 

 

themes

In our work at Utopiana, we would be exploring the following themes and aesthetic tropes:

 

  1. the greatest kind of adversity is in forgetting (a recurrent theme in Canadian culture that warrants some contemporization by Canadians outside of Canada);

 

  1. alternatives to nostalgia and notions of “lost time” in the vein of the modernist impulses explored by Proust;

 

  1. insertion of a crop in a community garden as a kind of public art practice;

 

  1. the colonial legacies in horticulture;

 

  1. the flow of Amerindian crops to Europe but the now lack of flow of Salish food crops to Europe because of concerns for more pests and invasive species;

 

  1. the ‘Eurasian’ nature of many of the gene-pools of Salish food plants and their relevance to (and lack of presence in) regions such as around Geneva; and

 

  1. the diverging relevance of decolonial aesthetics for regions such as Geneva and the Strait of Georgia areas of Pacific Canada.

 

Lomatium-nudicaule-21-6-2004-Belly-Rising-Up-by-Gordon-Brent-Ingram

Lomatium nudicaule, below Belly-Rising-Up, Vancouver Island, 21 June, 2004 by Gordon Brent Ingram

This is one of the most medicinal and sacred species for the Salish and the Lomatium genus only occurs in western North America. The leaves are also eaten as a vegetable.

 

 

theoretical influences

The following are the other works in this mixed genre to which we will be referencing in this proposed residency:

 

  1. the recent re-examinations of 1970s landart as with the 2012 survey,

Ends of the Earth: Land Art to 1974, at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles[2];

 

  1. various artists over the years who have worked with gardens and planting forests and gardens such as New York-based Alan Sonfist[3] and Canadian site-based artist, Ron Benner’s with his numerous garden works such as his 2008 Gardens of a Colonial Present / Jardins d’un Present Colonial[4];

 

  1. recent works by individuals and collectives such as Los Angeles-based, Fallen Fruit, that plant food crops as part of site-based interventions[5] and Canadian and Cree artist Duane Linklater’s blueberry garden[6]; and

 

a raft of theoretical and practice-related issues raised about so-called ‘permaculture’ gardens in the 2011 discussion of the UK-based collective, The Laboratory of Insurrectionary Imagination with Lars Kwakkenbos and its 2009 pamphlet, 13 Attitudes,[7] along with the 2010 essay on ‘tending’ as an art practice by Kelly and Gibson[8].

 

 

duration of proposed residency

The optimal three month period for this residency is July through September of 2015 so that there would be an opportunity to plant some local food crop perennials in the Utopiana garden in late September as the optimal time to install such perennial, horticultural material in the Geneva area.

 

artistic product

The three months at Utopiana in mid-2015, would allow castle & ingram to complete the following work by December 2015.

 

  1. a web site installation documenting these interventions at Utopiana

We could complete a simple web site similar to a related project on green roofs (www.gordonbrentingram.ca/roof) with postings of text, photographs, video clips, and drawings, probably only relying on simple public software such as WordPress.

 

  1. an archive of digital material and links to garden interventions as contemporary art

There would be an archival component to the web-site that links information on these interventions Utopiana with relevant material and interventions involving the Geneva region and related artistic interventions.

 

  1. a related arts series with at least five live events

We would want to organize of an event series of an evening or afternoon every two weeks related to the projects involving the screening of videos and on-site, studio and gardening demonstrations and related performances, events, and talks — offered in French and English.

 

  1. insertion of some disappearing crops into the Utopiana garden as art practice

We will make modest proposals for the transfer and re-establishment of such ‘disappearing crops’ (from the Geneva region) into the garden of Utopiana (as per space availability and the interest of the organization) with such discussions constituting art practices that would be documented and presented as part of production. The heritage plants from south-western Canada would not be proposed for Geneva without extensive protocol and agreements related to quarantines and acknowledgement of unresolved ownership of Salish crops. This absence in Geneva of the Salish crops, that would thrive in the region (perhaps thrive excessively and problematically) would be the source of reflection and discussion throughout this residence.

 

  1. proposal for an urban design intervention in Geneva involving heritage crops

An intervention into the public space of Geneva would be proposed with a series of relatively professional designs, something of a whimsical piece of utopian fantasy, involving re-insertion of some disappearing, local crops that could be subsequent exhibited in a gallery or community space in Geneva.

 

media

castle & ingram, as part of side stream environmental design, have vitae with numerous examples of work with and exhibiting with the following media:

 

  1. photography and montage (posted on-line with the possibility of a subsequent exhibition);

 

  1. video clips (posted on-line with the possibility of a subsequent exhibition);

 

  1. graphic text and drawings (posted on-line with the possibility of a subsequent exhibition);

 

  1. text (posted on-line with the possibility of a subsequent exhibition); and

 

  1. urban design drawings and designs (posted on-line with the possibility of a subsequent exhibition).

 

 

languages

Both Castle and Ingram are bilingual and Ingram has worked extensively in French including in Geneva and the Pay du Gex.

 

Nearly all of the text will be in English and French with interviews in French or English.

 

Some of the interviews may involve Salish dialects especially SENCOTEN from southern Vancouver Island and Halkomelem the indigenous language of the City of Vancouver and adjacent communities.

 

 

community engagement

For such a brief time in Geneva, over a summer, the community engagement of

castle & ingram would centre on somewhat whimsical and under-stated ‘field research’. The focus would be on making contact with various relevant networks and individuals in and around Geneva and proposing and undertaking site visits and interviews with related photographic and video documentation.

 

The second mode of community engagement would be in organizing at least five evening and afternoon events and workshops as “A la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu” `cabarets’ and salons.

 

A third form of community engagement would be in working with the Utopiana organization to possibly consider reinserting more ‘disappearing crops’ into the Utopian garden and in adjacent open space.

 

A fourth form of community engagement would be in a sardonic, parting proposal to introduce some of these crops into a higher profile, public open space in central Geneva. This proposal would be largely conceptual but ideas such as these can leave a mark on the local consciousness morphing into more practical possibilities.

 

Work on genetic erosion and disappearing heritage crops can often be dire and didactic.

Our approaches, in reaching out to individuals and organizations in Geneva, and adjacent

regions would be relatively sardonic.

 

biographies

Castle and Ingram currently contribute to a fifteen year old, Vancouver-based environmental planning and design collaborative, side stream environmental design. The group is often concerned with public art within urban public space and involves over a score of artists and designers roughly half of which are of indigenous North American heritages and

engaged in contemporising regional traditions. Of the side stream collaborative group, only castle & ingram have interest in working in Geneva at this time.

Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

Brent is Métis, the large indigenous demographic group in Canada at a half million people, with his family having deep roots in northern British Columbia, the Yukon and northern Quebec. Ingram’s francophone Métis heritage has been relatively cosmopolitan in its links and work spanning the building a infrastructure and work in education institutions. He grew up in a Salish community on Vancouver Island near Victoria, British Columbia where he was exposed daily to indigenous land use, horticulture, and other cultural expression. And his multilingual family spoke Métis and more standard, French dialects along with Chinook a now largely extinct intercultural language. Early on, Brochu-Ingram was also introduced to West Coast Canadian iterations of Fluxus, the Image Bank and General Idea network on the West Coast associated with FILE Magazine, Robert Smithson, and Allan Sekula. He studied environmental design, earned a BFA in Photography at the San Francisco Art Institute focused on new portrayals of landscapes and completed a PhD, on the cusp of landscape architecture and site-based art, at the University of California Berkeley College of Environmental Design. Part of those studies were based in Rome with extensive work in the Geneva region. Ingram has produced over ten group and solo shows including at Royal Institute of British Architecture in London and Storefront Art and Architecture in New York. He is the author of over one hundred publications, including on loss and re-establishment of heritage crops and gardens and has public art and ecological design taught studios at campuses of the University of California, at the University of British Columbia, American University of Sharjah, and George Mason University just outside of Washington DC. Brochu-Ingram has been the recipient of over ten awards and project grants.

Julian Guthrie Castle

Julian Castle, a dual Canadian and UK citizen, is a Vancouver-based archivist, cultural theorist, videographer, photographer, gardener, and public artist with over ten years of experience in the contemporary arts. He studied computer science at Dalhousie University and shifted over to digital media in the 1990s. He has over a decade of professional video camera experience and two decades of achievements around studying and archiving zines, comics and booklets. He is well experienced in semi-structured interviews the kind that are currently in vogue for artistic research. His personal research interests have been in zoomorphic and anthropomorphic comic and other graphic depictions. In the last decade, he has become involved with site-based and environmental art participating in one exhibition, that he largely installed, and working on the field research and proposal phases of a number of projects centred in public space.

 

 

internet documentation of the work of Castle & Ingram

Most of the recent castle & ingram projects, have been part of an environmental design and public art collective, side stream environmental design. This work is documented at a number of Ingram’s web-sites:

 

www.gordonbrentingram.ca with a site map for a series of linked project spaces & archives;

www.gordonbrentingram.ca/photobased documenting most of the exhibited material;

www.gordonbrentingram.ca/studiesdesigns documenting project sites and contexts for the work along with project-based sites including,

www.gordonbrentingram.ca/oscurita on a long-term project on ecologies of image, text, and public open space in Rome and

www.gordonbrentingram.ca/roof on the cultures of green roofs.

Crab-apple, Malus spp., Belly-Rising-Up, Vancouver Island, 24 April, 2005 by Gordon Brent Ingram

This kind of crab-apple was heavily tended and prized by the Salish and is in the same Eurasian gene-pool as apple and pear in Europe. A photograph of its fruit is on the cover page.

[1] Ingram provides an introduction to some of these tradition Salish food plants at, http://gordonbrentingram.ca/fragments/?p=211 that can just best accessed at the beginning of his site, http://gordonbrentingram.ca/fragments/ .

[2] Philipp Kaiser and Miwon Kwon (curators). 2013. Ends of the Earth: Land Art to 1974. Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles in collaboration with Haus der Kunst, Munich. http://moca.org/landart/

 

[3] http://www.alansonfist.com/

 

[4] Ron Benner. 2008. Gardens of a Colonial Present / Jardins d’un Present Colonial. London, Ontario: London Museum.

 

[5] http://fallenfruit.org/ and http://www.cityfarmer.info/2010/01/29/fallen-fruit-an-activist-art-project/

 

[6] http://www.duanelinklater.com/index.php?/a-blueberry-garden-/

 

[7] http://www.permaculture.com.au/articles/social-permaculture/art-activism-and-permaculture.html;

http://labofii.net/docs/13attitudes.pdf; and http://labofii.net/

 

[8] Caleb Kelly & Ross Gibson 2010 Contemporary Art & The Noise of TENDING. Interference: A Journal of Audio Culture. http://www.interferencejournal.com/articles/noise/the-noise-of-tending