project synopsis & site map

bosque section - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

The 2014 – 2016 studies, designs and interventions that comprise À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting are in response to Utopiana’s call for the thematic residency, La Bête et l’adversité. We explore one ‘beast’ in nature: human memory and the ways that biology, culture and our individual developments mediate what we know of landscapes and how we interact and sometimes transform public spaces. In this context, we explore divergent experiences of the postcolonial world: the Geneva region that was not colonized and has had an uneven relationship with the imperial and modernist projects and the still decolonising Salish Sea region of the South Coast of Pacific Canada and adjacent Puget Sound in the United States of America.

indefinite decolonial matrix - presqueperdu - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

Within these landscapes, we explore and imagine reinserting dwindling populations of wild and traditional tree crops, in the gene pools of

apple and pear,

plum and cherry,

raspberry and blackberry, and

blueberry and cranberry.

montage decolonial

Tree fruit in this project also becomes a focus for exploring ecological and cultural legacies and ‘gifts’ within ecosystems with renewed interest in philosophies of gratitude so central to indigenous cultures in the Western Hemisphere. The divergent indigenous cultures of these gene pools, that span both the Geneva and the Vancouver-Seattle regions across Europe, Asia, and north-western North America are reconnoitered. In this way, we critique and begin to decolonise popular and sometimes trite notions of ‘permaculture’, a set of principles and practices for diverse and more sustainable agro-ecosystems by re-centring the roles of traditional knowledge and learning from and respecting local gene pools (and associated human populations).

timeline - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Initiating our investigations of forgetting, memory and remembrance as an often irascible beast within nature (and human lives), the contributions of Proust, and in particular his now waning modernist notions of the individual, landscape, and desire codified in À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu comprise a key source for understanding the legacies of the colonial projects within Europe and in margins such as Pacific Canada. In understanding this broader loss of memory and ecosystem under modernism and individuals, we construct another aspect of the emerging movement of decolonial aesthetic specifically departing from and ‘rifting’ with Proustian nostalgia. A century ago, Proust’s modernist aesthetics largely obscured labour, ecology, and political economy from experiences of landscapes, agriculture, and indigenous and traditional communities. Today, contemporary aesthetics are back to more fully appreciating cultural legacies in nature as well as the crucial role of traditional knowledge and communities and material relationships more generally.

trellis - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Our endgame, in À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting, is to propose and begin to demonstrate some interventions in public space that re-establish small groves of these often declining tree crops. As beneficiaries of the tree planting legacies of artists Joseph Beuys and Alan Sonfist, we argue that agriculture and horticulture embody practices central to the collaborative and community-based impulses in contemporary art. In this work, we are also strongly influenced by the relational aesthetics proposed over a decade ago, that are more concerned with social learning than production of static art objects, and more recent forms of radical materialism centred on cultural cognition of threats to the biosphere and human life support and that in turn challenge to intensifying social inequities.

2015 Oct 14 site planning Alex - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Just as important as generating a beneficial ecological impact through nurturing traditional local gene pools, habitats and communities, we make ‘installations’ and archives with what we can find from recycled paper and ink to digital photographs, videos and text made with old computers and mobile telephones and reworked versions of software and apps. So in a time of new forms of impoverishment for artists, our approach is aggressive in the mixing of discarded and repurposed media taking inspiration from the minimalism and disregard for polish of the Arte Povera movement of Italy in the 1970s.

fruit agriculture culture

This site only holds the work of Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram. Collaborative work completed in this project is posted at www.castlegrunenfelderingram.space/perdu.

permaculture impermanent culture

In using this site, the categories listed on the left, seen after further scrolling, link to particular aspects of project development and specific works. Each of these categories represents a longer-term project that we hope to explore more fully in coming years.

Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram of castle grünenfelder ingram

decolonial public art

Canada Council logo

A portion of the total travel costs of Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram has been paid by the Canada Council for the Arts.

Canada Council logo

The bulk of support to complete this work is being provided by the Utopiana artist centre of Geneva which is supported by an array of local and regional agencies and organizations.

utopiana demolition Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 Sept urban bosques - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native, Salish fruit trees

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lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana” installed in Vancouver at Station & Terminal, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Alex Grünenfelder

 

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native fruit trees

host
City of Vancouver Public Art Program

 

initial posters in the ongoing ‘Nearly Lost’ project

4 different posters installed in 20 bus shelters with the poster dimension 47.25 inches x 68.25 inches.

 

installation & locations
October 10 to November 7, 2016 (with locations attached)

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2016-10-11-nearly-lost-castle-grunenfelder-ingram-installation-sites

 

authorship
castle grünenfelder ingram (Julian Castle, Alex Grünenfelder, and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram with this project involving conceptualization by all three artists, research, photographing, and initial design conceptualization by Grünenfelder and Brochu-Ingram, text by Brochu-Ingram, and final designs and electronic conveyance by Grünenfelder)

castle grünenfelder ingram is a collective of three working on the cusp of public art, urban design, sustainability transitions, and intercultural conversations especially around First Nations legacies in public space and local territories. Only working together for two years, our individual work in Vancouver goes back decades along with other projects and installations in Kamloops, New York, London UK, Seoul, Geneva, and Prince George. As one of our projects, we coordinate KEXMIN field station, on Salt Spring Island, as a centre for research and learning spanning traditional indigenous knowledge and contemporary science for environmental planning, ecological design, public art and other forms of contemporary cultural production with a focus on the Salish Sea and its Gulf and San Juan Islands between the mainland of the North American West Coast and Vancouver Island.

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castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #3 kwu7upay Pacific crabapple Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at Commercial & Adanac, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Laiwan

 

text from project proposal

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native fruit trees We propose large 2D imagery especially at bus stops, with video loop installations also possible for the video screens, of fruit and blossoms of several of the native fruit trees that have existed and continue to survive in the City of Vancouver — and that are of continued interest for First Native use, stewardship, and cultivation. Low resolution photographs would be enlarged, slightly saturated, and ‘montaged’ with educational text in English, Halkomelem (Musqueam and Tsleil-Waututh), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim (Squamish) along with other widely spoken languages, and botanical Latin. For the 2015-2016, we would be able focus on making a number of montage posters celebrating two of the most common native fruit trees and more extensive Salish orchards, Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, and chokecherry, Prunus virginiana ssp. demissa. Both of this crabapple species and this subspecies of chokecherry are limited to coastal ecosystems in BC, Alaska, and Washington State.

2016-sept-ihexwlhexw-chokecherry-castle_grunenfelder_ingram

text on posters
four different posters with large type with,

1. lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

2. t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

3. ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca

4. qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca

Along with the following headings is the following text for respective poster:

1. lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

One of the Salish names for chokecherry is lhexwlhéxw in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ Downriver dialect of Halkomelem language.

2. t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

One of the Salish names for chokecherry is t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) in the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim language.

3. ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca One of the Salish names for Pacific crabapple is ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) in the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim language.

4. qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca One of the Salish names for Pacific crabapple is qwa’upulhp in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ Downriver dialect of Halkomelem language.

2016-sept-kwu7upay-crabapple-castle_grunenfelder_ingram

For the two posters on chokecherry, there is the following text: Chokecherry has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver.

For the two posters on Pacific crabapple, there is the following text: Pacific crabapple has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver. For the two posters on chokecherry, there is the following text: Chokecherry has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver. For the two posters on Pacific crabapple, there is the following text: Pacific crabapple has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver.

2016-sept-qwaupulhp-crabapple-castle_grunenfelder_ingram

All four posters have the following text: This species is being studied at KEXMIN field station, a centre for conversations spanning traditional indigenous knowledge, modern science, and contemporary art — a project of castle grünenfelder ingram (Julian Castle, Alex Grünenfelder and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram). The following text was provided by the City of Vancouver: Commissioned as part of the series Coastal City for the 25th Anniversary of the City of Vancouver Public Art Program Vancouver.ca/platform2016

media
Inkjet printer on paper photographing
The photographs in the attached images of the posters were photographed jointly by Alex Grünenfelder and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram. All of the photographs of the posters installed in the bus shelters were taken by by Alex Grünenfelder.

fabricators / suppliers
OUTFRONT MEDIA Decaux in cooperation with
the printer, LinxPrint, as service-providers to the City of Vancouver

2016-sept-telemay-chokecherry-castle_grunenfelder_ingram

 

castle-grunenfelder-ingram-2016-nearly-lost-poster-3-kwu7upay-nanaimo-e-3rd-img_0348

castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #3 kwu7upay Pacific crabapple Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at Nanaimo & East 3rd, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Laiwan

 

castle-grunenfelder-ingram-2016-nearly-lost-poster-4-qwaupulhp

castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #4 qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at King Edward & Ontario, late October and early November 2016,  photograph by Sally Ogis

chokecherry-text-1

crabapple-text-3

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Ripening crabapple, qwa’up [Hul’q’umi’num], Malus fusca on Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island

*crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_1189

Pacific crabapple, qwa’upulhp (in the downriver dialect of Halkomelem), ḴÁ¸EW̱ (SENĆOŦEN), Malus fusca, north of the site of the village of Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 11 & 12, photographs by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

0 crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0599

1 crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_1113

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0582

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0499

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_1015

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0964

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0533

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0510

ripe chokecherry, thuxwun [Halkomelem], Prunus virginiana, above Fulford Harbour, Salt Spring Island

 

2016 August 12 chokecherry Grünenfelder & Ingram IMG_0049

ripe chokecherry, lhex̱wlhéx̱w & thuxwun [Halkomelem] above Fulford Harbour, Salt Spring Island photograph by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2016 August 12

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0472

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0471

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0443

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0431

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0378

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0249

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0143

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0047 copy

4 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0476

3 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0579

2 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0446

1 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0573

0 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0563

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0379 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0435 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0584

project bibliography: 3. introgression: evolving Northern Hemisphere fruit tree gene pools & biocultures

A 2014 – 2018 collaboration of castle grünenfelder ingram

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

#5 Utopiana mosaic 3 castle&ingram

bibliography heading

 

compiled project bibliographies: 2017 February 20 bibliography À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu

 

  1. introgression: evolving Northern Hemisphere fruit tree gene pools & biocultures

Berkes, Fikret. 2012. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251 – 162.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke eds. 2003. Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press

Campa, Ana, Noemí Trabanco, Elena Pérez-Vega1, Mercé Rovira and Juan J. Ferreira. 2011. Genetic relationship between cultivated and wild hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) collected in northern Spain. Plant Breeding 130(3): 360–366. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2010.01835.x/abstract

Coart, Xavier Vekemans, Marinus J M Smulders, Iris Wagner, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, and Erik Van Bockstaele. 2003. Genetic variation in the endangered wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) in Belgium as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology 12(4):845-57.

Coart, E, S Van Glabeke, M. De Loose, A.S. Larsen, and I. Roldán-Ruiz. 2006. Chloroplast diversity in the genus Malus: new insights into the relationship between the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) and the domesticated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Molecular Ecology 15(8):2171-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16780433

Deur, Douglas. 2002. Rethinking precolonial plant cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Professional Geographer 54: 140 – 157.

Deur, Douglas. 2005. Tending the garden, making the soil: Northwest Coast estuarine gardens as engineered environments. In Keeping It Living’: Traditions of Plant Use and cultivation on the Northwest coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner (editors). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 296 – 330.

Glausiusz, Josie. 2014. Apples of Eden: Saving the Wild Ancestor of Modern Apples – The original apples still grow in Central Asia, but are threatened with extinction. National Geographic (MAY 09, 2014). http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/apples-of-eden-saving-the-wild-ancestor-of-modern-apples/

Gremli, August. 1889. The flora of Switzerland for the use of tourists and field-botanists. Fifth Edition (Leonard W. Paitson trans.). London: David Nutt (Printed in Zurich).

Hanelt, Peter. 1997. Eurropean wild relatives of Prunus fruit crops. Bocconea 7: 401-408. http://www.herbmedit.org/bocconea/7-401.pdf

Héribaud-Joseph (frère). 1891. Analyse descriptive des Rubus du plateau central de la France. Clermont-Ferrand: Rousseau Libraire-Editeur.

Honoré, Tiphaine. 2012. Agroforestry, the traditional practice of growing crops around trees, is regaining popularity in parts of France. Guardian (21 August, 2012). http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/aug/21/agroforestry-france-farming-revival

Hummer, Kim E. 1996. Rubus diversity. Hortscience 31(2) (APRIL 1996): 182 – 183. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/31/2/182

Jacques, Dominique, Kristine Vandermijnsbrugge, Sébastein Lemaire, Adriana Antofie and Marc Lateur. 2009. Natural Distribution and Variability of Wild Apple (Malus Sylvestris) in Belgium. Belgian Journal of Botany 142(1): 39-49. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20794670

Keller, Ferdinand. 1878. The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and Other Parts of Europe, Volume 1. London: Longmans, Green, and Company.

Kole, Chittaranjan (editor). 2011. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources – Temperate Fruits. New York: Springer.

Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2005 Documenting pre-contact plant management on the Northwest Coast. An example of prescribed burning in the central and upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. in Keeping it Living: Traditions of plant use and cultivation on the Northwest Coast. Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner (editors). Seattle: UW Press / Vancouver: UBC Press. 2018 – 39.

Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2008. Documenting ancient plant management in the Northwest of North America. Botany 86: 129 – 145.

Manley, W.F., 2002, Postglacial Flooding of the Bering Land Bridge: A Geospatial Animation: Boulder, Colorado: INSTAAR, University of Colorado. http://instaar.colorado.edu/QGISL/bering_land_bridge

Maubon, Michel, Jean-Fran¸cois Ponge, Jean Andre. 1995. Dynamics of Vaccinium myrtillus patches in mountain spruce forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 6(3) 343-348. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00505508/document

Meltzer, David J. 2009. First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Moss, Madonna L, Dorthy M Peteet, and Cathy Whitlock. 2007. Mid-Holocene culture and climate on the Northwest coast of North America. in Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics: A Global Perspective on Mid-Holocene Transitions. David G Anderson, Kirk A Maasch and Daniel H Sandweiss (editors). San Diego: Elsevier and Academic Press. 491 – 529.

Parrotta, John A. and Ronald L. Trosper (editors). 2012. Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge: Sustaining Communities, Ecosystems and Biocultural Diversity. New York: Springer.

Pollan, Michael. 1998. Breaking Ground: The Call of the Wild Apple. New York Times (November 5, 1998).

Pollmann, Britta, Stefanie Jacomet, and Angela Schlumbaum 2005. Morphological and genetic studies of waterlogged Prunus species from the Roman Vicus Tasgetium (Eschenz, Switzerland). Journal of Archaeological Science. 32(10):1471–1480. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440305000853

Renfrew, Jane M. 1973. Palaeoethnobotany: The Prehistoric Food Plants of the Near East and Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.

Robinson, S. P., S. A. Harris, and B. E. Juniper. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh. Plant Systematics and Evolution 226(1-2): 35 – 58.

Routson, Kanin J. 2012 Malus diversity in wild and agricultural systems. PhD dissertation University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Routson, Kanin J, G M Volk, C M Richards, S E Smith, G P Nabhan, and V Whyllie de Echeverria. 2012. Genetic variation and distribution of Pacific crabapple. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 137(5): 325 – 332.

Sauer, Jonathan D. 1993. Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster. London CRC Press

Schnitzler, Annik, Claire Arnold, Amandine Cornille, Olivier Bachmann, and Christophe Schnitzler. 2014. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. PLOS| One (May 14, 2014) DOI:  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0096596

Senos, Rene, Frank Lake, Nancy J Turner, and Dennis Martinez. 2006. Traditional ecological knowledge and restoration practice in the Pacific Northwest. in Encyclopedia for Restoration of Pacific Northwest Ecosystems. Dean Apostal (editor). Washington DC: Island. 393 – 426.

Suttles, Wayne P. 1974. Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians: The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. New York: Garland.

Suttles, Wayne P. 2005 Coast Salish Resource Management: Incipient Agriculture? in Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner (editors). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 181 – 93.

Tavaud, M., A. Zanetto, J. L. David, F Laigret and E. Dirlewanger. 2004. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus xgondouinii and Prunus cerasus). Heredity 93(6): 631–638.

Teeling, Claire. 2012. In situ conservation of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Europe. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham. http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/4390/

Teeling, C., N. Maxted and B. V. Ford-Lloyd. 2012. The challenges of modelling species distribution: A case study of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Europe. in Agrobiodiversity Conservation: Securing the Diversity of Crop Wild Relatives and Landraces. Nigel Maxted, Mohammad E. Dulloo, Brian V. Ford-Lloyd, Lothar Frese, Jose M. Iriondo, and Miguel A. A. Pinheiro de Carvalho (editors). Egham, Surrey UK: CABI. 29 – 35.

Trosper, Ronald. 2002. Northwest coast indigenous institutions that supported resilience and sustainability. Ecological Economics 41: 329 – 344.

Trosper, Ronald L. 2003. Resilience in pre-contact Pacific Northwest social ecological systems. Conservation Ecology 7(3): 6. http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss3/art6/

Trosper, Ronald. 2009. Resilience, Reciprocity and Ecological Economics: Northwest Coast Sustainability. New York: Routledge.

Turner, Nancy J. 2003. Passing on the news: Women’s work, traditional knowledge and plant resource management in indigenous societies of northwestern North America. in Women and Plants: Case studies on gender relations in local plant genetic resource management. P. L. Howard (editor). London: Zed Books. 133 – 149.

Turner, Nancy J. 2009. ‘It’s so different today’: Climate change and indigenous lifeways in British Columbia, Canada. in Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change. Jan Salick and Nanci Ross (editors). special issues Global Environmental Change 19: 180 – 190.

Turner, Nancy J. 2014A. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Volume 1: The History and Practice of Indigenous Plant Knowledge. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Turner, Nancy J. 2014B. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Volume Two – The Place and Meaning of Plants in Indigenous Cultures and Worldviews. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Turner, Nancy J and Fikret Berkes. 2006. Coming to understanding: Developing conservation through incremental learning. in Developing Resource Management and Conservation. Fikret Berkes and Nancy J Turner (editors). Special issue. Human Ecology 34(4): 495 – 513.

Turner, Nancy J and Iain J Davidson-Hunt, and M O’Flaherty. 2003. ‘Living on the Edge’ Ecological and cultural edges as sources of diversity for social-ecological resilience. Human Ecology 31 (3): 31 – 47.

Wagner, Iris, W.D. Maurer, P. Lemmen, H.P. Schmitt, M. Wagner, and M. Binder. 2014. Hybridization and Genetic Diversity in Wild Apple (Malus_sylvestris (L.) MILL) from Various Regions in Germany and from Luxembourg. Silvae Genetica 63(3):81-94.  http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270450148_Hybridization_and_Genetic_Diversity_in_Wild_Apple_(Malus_sylvestris_(L.)_MILL)_from_Various_Regions_in_Germany_and_from_Luxembourg

Weber, Heinrich E. 1997. Two new Rubus species from Switzerland and other parts of Central Europe. Botanica Helvetica 107(2): 211-220. http://eurekamag.com/research/009/684/009684485.php

Wyllie de Echeverria, Victoria. 2013 Moolks (Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca) on the North Coast of British Columbia: Knowledge and meaning in Gitga’at Culture. MSc thesis University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia.

Zohary, Daniel, Maria Hopf, and Ehud Weiss. 2012. Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The origin and spread of domesticated plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

The Tree Question: Field research & cultivation practices in community-based public art in an age of ecological crises

2016 April 25 presentation Geneva University of Art & Design

Trans – Mediation, Education, * Haute École d’art et de design Genève HEAD

bosque-section-presqueperdu-Gordon-Brent-Brochu-Ingram-small

abstract: 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘tree’ presentation

bilingual notes: (trad) 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘tree’ presentation

powerpoint: 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘The Tree Question’ PowerPoint

title of The Tree Question

abstract

Since the pioneering 1982 intervention by Joseph Beuys, the 7000 Eichen – Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung) / 7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration, tree planting, and cultivation more generally, have increasingly become contemporary art practice. Employment of such cultivation interventions, as contemporary art and not as landscape architecture, have nearly always used as a way to challenge particular notions and demarcations of the ‘public’, on one hand, and experiences of communities, landscapes and ecosystems, on the other hand. Such a set of oppositional tactics often contrasts itself with professionalized landscape architecture more often employed to re-enforce the status quo of public space. And since documenta 7, a raft of experimental artists have rifted on notions of agriculture (and silviculture, horticulture, and permaculture) as visual culture most notably Alan Sonfist (et al 2014, Landi 2011), Ron Benner (2008), the Fallen Fruit collective (Goodyear 2012), and Sam Van Aken (Brooks 2014). But precisely how ‘contemporary’ are such tree planting ‘works’ and how are associated practices and conceptualizations changing as ecological crises intensify, as cultural signifiers shift, as access to scientific information increases, and as data sources and ecological and social paradigms diversify? And how do these Western and often Eurocentric aesthetic movements, involving trees and urban space, construct relationships with recoveries and practices of indigenous communities often at odds with modernity?

 

One point of inquiry is provided by Claire Bishop’s 2012 note that, “Beuys drew a conceptual line between his output as a sculptor and his discursive / pedagogic work” (page 245), the latter including his tree planting. But if cultivation is more of a conceptual disruptor and teaching opportunity than part of artistic production to produce an art work, why does the aesthetic importance of trees for interventions in public space continue to increase? A more problematic and indefinite set of questions derive from the divergent and shifting uses of tree planting in contemporary culture. For example, there is no sign that the 1982 intervention in Kassel was intended to contribute to carbon sequestration or to conserve local habitat and species, or to build community through sharing fruit as in the recent tree planting work in Los Angeles of Fallen Fruit. Today, it would be difficult to plant a tree, as a contemporary art work, without professed relationships to countering climate change, gentrification, and homelessness and contributing to carbon sequestration, food security, and social equity. So like painting, drawing, and sculpture, the basic ‘materials’ of tree planting, however organic, are infinitely pliable — as long as respective organisms and ecosystems can survive and be part of public space. There is an implicit aesthetic of survival.

 

What are the diverse roles of science in these forms of artistic research? In particular, how does tree-planting-as-contemporary-art challenge, expand, and re-enforce broader art movements such as,

  1. various forms of community participation as art (embodied in the work of Suzanne Lacey and Martha Rosler),
  2. scientific experimentation as in ‘wetware’ and biological modification,
  3. traditional knowledge and other indigenous experiences,
  4. relational aesthetics as new forms of education and community aesthetic engagement, and
  5. micro-urban tactics that transform multiple publics?

Or do the heightened skills and artifice required to sufficiently manipulate a site in deteriorating environments, to insure that trees will thrive, represent another kind of cultivation of culture that signals a new and more tenuous phase of the “Anthropocene” (Wark 2015)? In other words, are the creative perspectives and practices of contemporary artists, particularly collaboratives and collectives, increasingly necessary to keep communities, ecosystems, and public spaces ‘alive’, diverse, and evolving?

 

Brochu-Ingram presents some early results from some of his ongoing investigations, designs, and interventions in the Vancouver and Geneva regions.

 

references

Benner, Ron. 2008. Gardens of a Colonial Present / Jardins d’un Present Colonial. London, Ontario: London Museum.

Beuys, Joseph. 1982. 7000 Eichen – Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung) / 7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration. Kassel, Hesse: documenta 7.

Bishop, Claire. 2012. Artificial Hells: Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship. New York: Verso.

Brooks, Katherine. 2014. This One Tree Grows 40 Different Types Of Fruit, Is Probably From The Future. The Huffington Post (July 24, 2014)

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/24/tree-of-40-fruit_n_5614935.html

Goodyear, Dana. 2012. Eat A Free Peach: Mapping “Public Fruit.” The New Yorker (March 12, 2012). http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/eat-a-free-peach-mapping-public-fruit

Landi, Ann. 2011. Separating the Trees from the Forest: Alan Sonfist has built a career as an urban land artist. ARTnews (Summer 2011) (POSTED 08/15/11 5:58 PM). http://www.artnews.com/2011/08/15/separating-the-trees-from-the-forest/

Sonfist, Alan, Wolfgang Becker, and Robert Rosenblum. 2004. Nature, The End of Art: Environmental Landscapes. New York: Distributed Art Publishers.

Wark, Mckenzie. 2015. Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene. London: Verso.

salmon smoking rack bean trellis

2015 August 3 treillis abstraction 04-08-15_1426 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2016 Feb 9 y trellis montage - Gordon Brent Ingram

above: early February 2016 after the runner bean vines have died back

below: July 2015 at the height of flowering of the runner beans

2015 August salmon smoking rack bean trellis Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 5 Burgoyne Valley Community Farm (google satellite) Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

This work is currently installed on Plot 20 in The Burgoyne Valley Community Farm at 2232 Fulford Ganges Road, east of Reid Creek, on Salt Spring Island. The trellis is roughly in the centre of this modified scene, just south-west of the West Gate.

The dimensions are roughly 9 meters x 3 meters and extending at times to a height of 7 meters. Some of the vines may well establish as perennials and the local, dead wood, harvested from the riparian forest along Reid Creek, is already beginning to break down — contributing more nutrients such as nitrogen to a clay soil that is depleted by partial water-logging and standing water in the winter. The trellis will be replanted next year but the design will change as the height increases to support the long vines.

2015 Oct - aerial - trellis

2015 August 6 trellis montage Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 06 07-08-15_1433 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2015 August 6 07-08-15_1447 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2015 August 6 trellis 07-08-15_1435 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram2015 August 2015 07-08-15_1449 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 3 04-08-15_1443 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

 2015 August 3 trellis 04-08-15_1444 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 3 trellis 04-08-15_1445 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 1 02-08-15_1724 salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2015 August 1 02-08-15_1653 salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2015 August 1 02-08-15_1658 salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

 

2015 August 1 trellis - darker sky montage salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 Sept trellis iteration - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

2015 August 1 trellis - lighter sky montage salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small) 2015 August 1 trellis - turquoise sky montage salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

 

2015 July 23 trellis & blossom - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 July 27 trellis blossoms #2 - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 July 27 trellis blossoms #1 - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

 

2015 July 27 trellis blossoms #3 - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

This traditional variety of Scarlet Emperor Runner Bean, that was only planted on June 10, 2015, started blossoming massively on this trellis on July 24. Many honey bees and some hummingbirds are now enjoying the trellis.

2015 July 21 salmon smoking rack bean trellis - composite - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2014 July 23 blossom montage trellis - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 July 21 salmon smoking rack bean trellis - composite - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 July 21 salmon smoking rack bean trellis - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram Continue reading salmon smoking rack bean trellis

Some circumpolar tree crop gene pools spanning Western Europe & Pacific Canada

2015 Utopiana, Geneva, themed residency ‘La Bête et l’adversité’

A collaboration of castle grünenfelder ingram
À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture:
The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

2006 June 30 crabapple Belly-Rising-Up - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2006 June 30 Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, 
Belly-Rising protected landscape, 
south-eastern corner of Tsawout Indian Reserve, 
Saanich, Vancouver Island

Some circumpolar tree crop gene pools
spanning Western Europe & Pacific Canada

 

Well over five crop gene pools are spread in an almost continuous arc from Western Europe, through Eurasia, to North America. We focus on four gene pools that produce fruit and that can thrive in small, urban public spaces:

Malus species including apple, pear and crabapple;

Prunus species including plum and cherries;

Corylus species all producing similar kinds of hazelnuts;

Rubus including raspberry and blackberry;

and

Vaccinium including blueberries and huckleberries.

2007 June 5 Salish crabapple - Malus fusca - Belly-Rising-Up Tsawout Saanich - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2007 June 5 Salish crabapple, Malus fusca, 
Belly-Rising-Up protected landscape, 
south-eastern corner of Tsawout Indian Reserve,
Saanich, Vancouver Island

The many species in these gene pools were shaped by traditional communities in both Eurasia and the Americas and our project here explores the contemporary knowledge and engagements with these gene pools in the region around Geneva spanning Romandie and eastern France and a similarly sized region on the West Coast of North America: around the Salish Sea including the metropolitan areas of Vancouver and Seattle. There is an increasing body of knowledge suggesting that some of the populations of these fruit trees on the West Coast of North America have been enriched by marine and land-based peoples moving east across the now-inundated land bridge, Beringia, at various periods over the last 14,000 years.

Analyses descriptive du RUBUS 1891

Both regions share similar latitudes and climates but differ markedly in their relationship to colonial and decolonial processes. Switzerland, as a whole, thrived on the edges of the Western European empires and that legacy is the basis of new, multinational corporate ventures that while undermining local traditional knowledge about fruit crops has not been lethal to local communities.

crab-apple 21 6 2004 Belly-Rising-Up - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2004 June 21 Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, 
Belly-Rising protected landscape, 
south-eastern corner of Tsawout Indian Reserve, 
Saanich, Vancouver Island

In contrast, the Salish Sea gene pools, modified and managed for millennia by indigenous Salish language-speaking communities, are under threat not only from habitat change but from the loss of local languages and the cultural knowledge to which it is tied. In this context, a growing body of legal decisions have given Salish communities in Canada a basis to intervene to protect traditional lands and resources.

Swiss Flora for Tourists 1889

Curiously, a number of mid-19th Century fruit trees, planted by the first settlers, have naturalized and hybridized with local species. These introgression processes can be important for the evolution and survival of these wild and traditional tree crop populations, thickets and orchards especially in the face of climate change and environmental stress.

Rubus 1889 The Flora of Switzerland

In exploring the exploring ways to reintroduce individual trees and small orchards, of these progenitor populations, into the public spaces of both urban Geneva and Vancouver – Seattle, we are exploring the following wild and traditional tree crop species and their associated human cultures.

West Coast of Canada / Salish Sea / Puget Sound*
MALUS (apple, pear, crabapple)
Malus fusca
PRUNUS (plum & cherry)
Prunus emarginata
Prunus virginiana
CORYLUS (hazelnut)
Corylus cornuta
RUBUS (raspberry & blackberry)
Rubus leucodermis Rubus parviflorus
Rubus spectabilis Rubus ursinus
VACCINIUM (blueberry, cranberry, huckleberry)
Vaccinium ovatum Vaccinium oxycoccos Vaccinium parvifolium
*(with a focus on the Gulf Islands the location of KEXMIN field station)

imprint - Analyses descriptive du RUBUS 1891

While based at Utopiana, we will searching out the following species and associated communities and cultural landscapes.

Western Europe with a focus on Switzerland, France, and adjacent regions
MALUS (apple, pear)
Malus sylvestris
We may well also find populations that could better correspond to some the following labels.
Malus acerba
Malus communis
Malus dasyphylla
Malus florentina
Malus praecox
Malus pumila
Malus trilobata

PRUNUS (plum & cherry)
Prunus avium
Prunus brigantina
Prunus cerasifera
Prunus cerasus
Prunus cocomilia
Prunus fruticosa
Prunus mahaleb
Prunus prostrata
Prunus pumila
Prunus spinosa
If there is time and over the longer term, we may search out populations elsewhere in Europe with labels such as the following:
Prunus fruticans
Prunus laurocerasus
Pruns ramburii
Prunus serotina
Prunus tenella
Prunus webbii

CORYLUS (hazelnut)
Corylus avellana

RUBUS (raspberry & blackberry)
The nomenclature of Rubus species in Western Europe is fabulously unstable and overlapping. So we expect to encounter species that correspond to these labels and well as those associated with more modernized taxonomies.
Rubus australis
Rubus catsius
Rubus cesius
Rubus foliis
Rubus fruticosus
Rubus hispidus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus idzus
Rubus landoltii
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus rhombicus
Rubus rosaefolius
Rubus saxitilis
Rubus tomentosus

VACCINIUM (blueberry and cranberry)
Vaccinium microcarpum
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea

2004 June 21 blackcap - Rubus leucodermis Belly-Rising-Up Tsawout - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram2004 June 21 blackcap raspberry, 
Rubus leucodermis, 
Belly-Rising-Up protected landscape, 
south-eastern corner of Tsawout Indian Reserve, 
Saanich, Vancouver Island

 

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