project synopsis & site map

bosque section - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

The 2014 – 2016 studies, designs and interventions that comprise À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting are in response to Utopiana’s call for the thematic residency, La Bête et l’adversité. We explore one ‘beast’ in nature: human memory and the ways that biology, culture and our individual developments mediate what we know of landscapes and how we interact and sometimes transform public spaces. In this context, we explore divergent experiences of the postcolonial world: the Geneva region that was not colonized and has had an uneven relationship with the imperial and modernist projects and the still decolonising Salish Sea region of the South Coast of Pacific Canada and adjacent Puget Sound in the United States of America.

edible chokecherry, Prunus virginiana, fruit (‘drupe’) (2016 August 11 above Fulford Harbour just 50 metres west of the historic stone Catholic Church, Salt Spring Island photo by Alex Grunenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram)

indefinite decolonial matrix - presqueperdu - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

Within these landscapes, we explore and imagine reinserting dwindling populations of wild and traditional tree crops, in the gene pools of

apple and pear,

plum and cherry,

raspberry and blackberry, and

blueberry and cranberry.

For other Canadians having very mixed feelings about next week’s 150th anniversary of the modern Canadian state (including its massive repressive apparatuses), perhaps we need an alternative symbol. This is the only native tree that is in every province and territory: chokecherry, Prunus virginiana. It was known in nearly every indigenous language was the first fruit after the glaciers receded, has medicinal bark (for the original cherry cough lozenge), and produced the preferred poles for teepees. (2017 May 7, Ruckle Provincial Park, Salt Spring Island photo by Alex Grunenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram)

Tree fruit in this project also becomes a focus for exploring ecological and cultural legacies and ‘gifts’ within ecosystems with renewed interest in philosophies of gratitude so central to indigenous cultures in the Western Hemisphere. The divergent indigenous cultures of these gene pools, that span both the Geneva and the Vancouver-Seattle regions across Europe, Asia, and north-western North America are reconnoitered. In this way, we critique and begin to decolonise popular and sometimes trite notions of ‘permaculture’, a set of principles and practices for diverse and more sustainable agro-ecosystems by re-centring the roles of traditional knowledge and learning from and respecting local gene pools (and associated human populations).

timeline - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Initiating our investigations of forgetting, memory and remembrance as an often irascible beast within nature (and human lives), the contributions of Proust, and in particular his now waning modernist notions of the individual, landscape, and desire codified in À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu comprise a key source for understanding the legacies of the colonial projects within Europe and in margins such as Pacific Canada. In understanding this broader loss of memory and ecosystem under modernism and individuals, we construct another aspect of the emerging movement of decolonial aesthetic specifically departing from and ‘rifting’ with Proustian nostalgia. A century ago, Proust’s modernist aesthetics largely obscured labour, ecology, and political economy from experiences of landscapes, agriculture, and indigenous and traditional communities. Today, contemporary aesthetics are back to more fully appreciating cultural legacies in nature as well as the crucial role of traditional knowledge and communities and material relationships more generally.

trellis - presqueperdu Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Our endgame, in À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting, is to propose and begin to demonstrate some interventions in public space that re-establish small groves of these often declining tree crops. As beneficiaries of the tree planting legacies of artists Joseph Beuys and Alan Sonfist, we argue that agriculture and horticulture embody practices central to the collaborative and community-based impulses in contemporary art. In this work, we are also strongly influenced by the relational aesthetics proposed over a decade ago, that are more concerned with social learning than production of static art objects, and more recent forms of radical materialism centred on cultural cognition of threats to the biosphere and human life support and that in turn challenge to intensifying social inequities.

2015 Oct 14 site planning Alex - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Just as important as generating a beneficial ecological impact through nurturing traditional local gene pools, habitats and communities, we make ‘installations’ and archives with what we can find from recycled paper and ink to digital photographs, videos and text made with old computers and mobile telephones and reworked versions of software and apps. So in a time of new forms of impoverishment for artists, our approach is aggressive in the mixing of discarded and repurposed media taking inspiration from the minimalism and disregard for polish of the Arte Povera movement of Italy in the 1970s.

fruit agriculture culture

This site only holds the work of Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram. Collaborative work completed in this project is posted at www.castlegrunenfelderingram.space/perdu.

permaculture impermanent culture

In using this site, the categories listed on the left, seen after further scrolling, link to particular aspects of project development and specific works. Each of these categories represents a longer-term project that we hope to explore more fully in coming years.

Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram of castle grünenfelder ingram

decolonial public art

Canada Council logo

A portion of the total travel costs of Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram has been paid by the Canada Council for the Arts.

Canada Council logo

fruit (a month from being ripe) of crabapple trees, Malus fusca, in a grove with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 11 & 12 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

2015 Sept urban bosques - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

Salish fruit tree species of the Gulf & San Juan Islands

edible drupes of chokecherry, Prunus virginian a, above Fulford Harbour, just west of the historic Catholic Church, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 9 – 11 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Salish fruit tree species of the Gulf & San Juan Islands

Around the Salish Sea, there were more than six native, tree species that have been harvested and often carefully cultivated and stewarded for fruit, technology, and medicine. These orchards and respective cultivation practices span a rich set of Salish communities and languages. By ‘fruit tree’, we describe a relatively small deciduous tree that has been maintained by families and communities. With heights ranging from a meter and a half to three meters, these trees were often kept low in order to stimulate fruit production and allow for ease of picking (and more often through shaking with sticks). For some Salish fruit species, cultures and sites, orchards were maintained through planting of seed, transplanting, pruning, and light burning.

fruit of crabapple trees, Malus fusca, in a grove with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 11 & 12 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca

Of all of the fruit trees around the Salish Sea, this indigenous crabapple produced the most food and provided crucial amounts of carbohydrates and vitamins. Crabapples were eaten raw and preserved in water or eulachon oil in cedar boxes. And of the five, indigenous North American apples, only Malus fusca, is in the primary gene pool of the cultivated, Eurasian apple. Malus fusca grows near the coast of the North Pacific from central California to Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula and possibly to Hokkaido. Nancy Turner (2014: 59, 65) went as far as suggesting that this species was spread by early human migrants and consistently collected information from informants confirming that crabapple “[t]rees [were] tended pruned, lopped, and transplanted” (Turner 2014: 189).

blossoms of crabapple trees, Malus fusca, in a grove with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 11 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Perhaps more than any of the other native fruit tree species around the Salish Sea, crabapple trees were “owned” (Turner 2014: 189) often passing from mother to daughter. And in some North-West Coast indigenous cultures, Pacific crabapple was considered a particularly powerful plant central to a complex conception of transformative twigs (as in the cuttings and vegetative propagation so central to Salish horticulture) leading to magical expansions of life into entire ecosystems for human benefit (Turner 2014: 344). In turn, crabapple orchards or ‘gardens’ were often well maintained and pruned.

edible drupes of chokecherry, Prunus virginiana, above Fulford Harbour, just west of the historic Catholic Church, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 9 – 11 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Chokecherry, Prunus virginiana

This species of cherry tree is native to every province and territory in Canada. This particular cherry is relatively rare on the Pacific coast largely confined to the Salish Sea. Along the Pacific coast, from Salt Spring Island southward, this species is associated with better-watered sites in Garry oak woodlands and savannahs with this species, though perhaps a different subspecies, reappearing again near marine shorelines in Mendocino County, California.

blossoms of chokecherry, Prunus virginiana, above Fulford Harbour, just west of the historic Catholic Church, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 20 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

This, the most bountiful of the cherries of north-western North America, has close Eurasian relatives extending to Western Europe. Around the Salish Sea, chokecherry were widely harvested, traded (Turner 2014: 124), and tended (Turner 2014: 189). Chokecherry bark was a crucial ingredient in a number of medicinal decoctions (Turner 2014: 437). Distinct varieties of this species were recognized by some Salish communities. So far, the specimens recorded around the Salish Sea have been consistent with the North-West Coast subspecies, Prunus virginiana ssp. demissa.

blossoms of black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii, Ruckle Provincial Park, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

 

blossoms of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata, Beaver Point Road just north of North Ridge Drive 2017 May 5 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata

“The fruit of this ‘bitter cherry’ tree was not widely harvested but its wood was prized for knife handles and its bark was crucial for basket weaving” (Turner 2014: 124).

 

buds of Crataegus douglasii var douglasii about a week before blossoming at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Two species of black hawthorn

On the Gulf and San Juan Islands and other areas around the Salish Sea, there are two distinct species of black hawthorn:

blossoms of Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii just above the tide-line at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 6 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii

and

blossoms of Crataegus douglasii var suksdorfii along Burgoyne Bay Road near the main provincial park parking lot, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii

that is often considered a separate species in the United States as, Crataegus suksdorfii.

First Nations around the Salish Sea harvested the fruit and stewarded two species of Black hawthorn (Turner 2014: 272). “The dry sweetish fruits were eaten by the Island Salish groups, usually in the early fall. The Songhees ate them with salmon roe (Boas, 1890).[Turner & Bell]”

buds of Crataegus douglasii var douglasii about a week before blossoming above the beach just north of the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 6 * photograph taken jointly by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii  is often more associated with the mainland and interior of British Columbia, which occurs more often as a large shrub with some tree forms on the Gulf Islands. In contrast, the island subspecies or species of Black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii (with a distribution more centred on the coast), is more often in a taller, tree form. The label Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii corresponds to a species identified in the United States including for the San Juan Islands as Crataegus suksdorfii differentiated as a distinct species because “It is diploid versus tetraploid for Crataegus douglasii.” As well as subtle but consistent differences in the leaves of these two black hawthorn species, a simple differentiation can be made by examining the centre of a blossom. The flowers of “Variation douglasii” nearly always have 10 stamens with ovaries that are more often hairy whereas the flowers of “Variation suksdorfii” have 20 stamens and the ovaries are usually smooth.

 

California hazelnut, Corylus cornuta var. californica

California hazelnut occur near the West Coast of North America from California to Alaska and are closely related to Eurasian hazelnut species that occur as far west as north-western Spain. Within the populations on the North-West Coast of North America, there were two subspecies. The involucral ‘beaks’ attached to the nuts of Corylus cornuta var. cornuta are twice as long as the actual fruit / nut. In contrast, Corylus cornuta var. california fruit are attached to involucral beaks that are half that length and roughly the diameter of the sometimes  larger fruit (that might be the result of indigenous domestication, stewardship, and ecosystem management).

Hazelnut was transplanted on the BC coast (Turner 2014: 203 – 204) and groves were sometimes managed through burning (Turner 2014: 198). Hazelnut were sometimes transplanted (Turner 2014: 365). There are records of historical orchards in northern areas such as the lower Skeena Valley that well into the twentieth century were defended by First Nations who asserted dietary dependence, ownership and stewardship. Around the Salish Sea, records of significant groves are for sites near indigenous settlements and historical population centres. On the Gulf Islands, a significant record of ‘wild hazelnut’ was around Beaver Point Hall on Salt Spring Island just above the Tsawout / mixed Saanich and Cowichan village on the island’s south-east shore.

 

Along with chokecherry, two other species are common in many interior regions of British Columbia and further east in Canada, and are thought to have been more common around the Salish Sea before 5,000 b.p.

 

 

blossoms of Saskatoon berry, Amelanchier alnifolia, bove the beach just north of the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station
blossoms of Saskatoon berry, Amelanchier alnifolia, bushes adjacent to some Garry oak woodland above the beach just north of the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 April 25 * * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Saskatoon berry, Amelanchier alnifolia, was transplanted by some First Nations in the region (Turner 203 – 204) as late as the early 20th Century.

 

Soapberry, Shepherdia canadensis,  is thought to have been more common on the Coast and more important dietarily than it is now (Turner 2014: 140 – 144). Along the coast and in the interior, soapberry patches were “maintained by landscape burning, bushes pruned, berries scattered” and “occasionally transplanted” (Turner 2014: 191)

a cultivated European apple tree, Malus sylvestris, planted at what is today Ruckle Provincial Park in the late 19th or early 20th century; around these old trees are second and third generation, ‘volunteer’ apple and pear trees, that most likely have hybridized with the adjacent Salish crabapple trees, Malus fusca, which is the only North American Malus species that can cross with cultivated Eurasian apple crops 2017 May 5 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

circumpolar Eurasian hybrids

All of the Salish fruit tree species, aside from Saskatoon berry and soapberry, are part of circumpolar gene pools with millennia of relationships with human beings and domestication processes — on both sides of Beringia. But there are some distinct differences between each side of the North Pacific. Nearly all of the petals of the Eurasian domesticates are one and a half to twice the size of the North American species. Another general difference between ‘wild’, traditionally stewarded, and indigenous, North American and domesticated and Eurasian, primarily north-western Europe, sides of those gene pools is this simple dichotomy:

aside from the Island species of black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii var. suksdorfii / Crataegus suksdorfii, which blossoms simultaneously with slow leafing, the North American native fruit trees nearly always leaf-out a week or two BEFORE blossoming

while

the Eurasian domesticates nearly always produce blossoms before they leaf out.

And on the Gulf Islands there are circumpolar hybrids where blossoming and leafing are more simultaneous such as a probable,

hybrid of native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata, and introduced, north-western European blackthorn or sloe, Prunus spinosa, that began to reproduce without cultivation starting in the twentieth century on Salt Spring Island, where blossoms and fruit begin with a double cluster several inches from the end of each branch like bitter cherry, with petals large like a European domesticate, and blossoming and leafing relatively simultaneous.

***

The Turner 2014 references above refers to the most definitive survey, so far, of indigenous tree crops in British Columbia:

Nancy J. Turner. 2014. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Volume Two – The Place and Meaning of Plants in Indigenous Cultures and Worldviews. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Volume One is also crucial for understanding the human relationships with these species of fruit trees.

a blooming grove of crabapple trees, Malus fusca, with a very long history of harvesting and stewardship (and now vulnerable to sea level rise) at the Cowichan village, Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2017 May 11 * photograph taken jointly by Jan Steinman, Ecoreality Cooperative & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram, KEXMIN field station

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native, Salish fruit trees

2016-oct-20-chokecherry-poster-vancouver-castle-grunenfelder-ingram-img_0749

lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana” installed in Vancouver at Station & Terminal, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Alex Grünenfelder

 

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native fruit trees

host
City of Vancouver Public Art Program

 

initial posters in the ongoing ‘Nearly Lost’ project

4 different posters installed in 20 bus shelters with the poster dimension 47.25 inches x 68.25 inches.

 

installation & locations
October 10 to November 7, 2016 (with locations attached)

installation-site-loclist_20161004_115506_page_1

2016-10-11-nearly-lost-castle-grunenfelder-ingram-installation-sites

 

authorship
castle grünenfelder ingram (Julian Castle, Alex Grünenfelder, and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram with this project involving conceptualization by all three artists, research, photographing, and initial design conceptualization by Grünenfelder and Brochu-Ingram, text by Brochu-Ingram, and final designs and electronic conveyance by Grünenfelder)

castle grünenfelder ingram is a collective of three working on the cusp of public art, urban design, sustainability transitions, and intercultural conversations especially around First Nations legacies in public space and local territories. Only working together for two years, our individual work in Vancouver goes back decades along with other projects and installations in Kamloops, New York, London UK, Seoul, Geneva, and Prince George. As one of our projects, we coordinate KEXMIN field station, on Salt Spring Island, as a centre for research and learning spanning traditional indigenous knowledge and contemporary science for environmental planning, ecological design, public art and other forms of contemporary cultural production with a focus on the Salish Sea and its Gulf and San Juan Islands between the mainland of the North American West Coast and Vancouver Island.

castle-grunenfelder-ingram-2016-nearly-lost-poster-3-kwu7upay-commercial-adanac-dscf6457

castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #3 kwu7upay Pacific crabapple Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at Commercial & Adanac, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Laiwan

 

text from project proposal

Nearly lost: Re-introducing images of Vancouver’s native fruit trees We propose large 2D imagery especially at bus stops, with video loop installations also possible for the video screens, of fruit and blossoms of several of the native fruit trees that have existed and continue to survive in the City of Vancouver — and that are of continued interest for First Native use, stewardship, and cultivation. Low resolution photographs would be enlarged, slightly saturated, and ‘montaged’ with educational text in English, Halkomelem (Musqueam and Tsleil-Waututh), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim (Squamish) along with other widely spoken languages, and botanical Latin. For the 2015-2016, we would be able focus on making a number of montage posters celebrating two of the most common native fruit trees and more extensive Salish orchards, Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca, and chokecherry, Prunus virginiana ssp. demissa. Both of this crabapple species and this subspecies of chokecherry are limited to coastal ecosystems in BC, Alaska, and Washington State.

2016-sept-ihexwlhexw-chokecherry-castle_grunenfelder_ingram

text on posters
four different posters with large type with,

1. lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

2. t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

3. ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca

4. qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca

Along with the following headings is the following text for respective poster:

1. lhexwlhéxw | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

One of the Salish names for chokecherry is lhexwlhéxw in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ Downriver dialect of Halkomelem language.

2. t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) | chokecherry | Prunus virginiana

One of the Salish names for chokecherry is t’elemay (with two vertical accents over ‘m’ and ‘y’ and an acute accent over the ‘a’) in the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim language.

3. ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca One of the Salish names for Pacific crabapple is ḵwu7úpay (with a vertical accent over the ‘y’) in the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim language.

4. qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca One of the Salish names for Pacific crabapple is qwa’upulhp in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ Downriver dialect of Halkomelem language.

2016-sept-kwu7upay-crabapple-castle_grunenfelder_ingram

For the two posters on chokecherry, there is the following text: Chokecherry has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver.

For the two posters on Pacific crabapple, there is the following text: Pacific crabapple has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver. For the two posters on chokecherry, there is the following text: Chokecherry has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver. For the two posters on Pacific crabapple, there is the following text: Pacific crabapple has been a major source of fruit and medicinal bark for indigenous bark for indigenous peoples on the West Cost. Trees continue to be owned, stewarded and harvested by families of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Watuth First Nations within today’s City of Vancouver.

2016-sept-qwaupulhp-crabapple-castle_grunenfelder_ingram

All four posters have the following text: This species is being studied at KEXMIN field station, a centre for conversations spanning traditional indigenous knowledge, modern science, and contemporary art — a project of castle grünenfelder ingram (Julian Castle, Alex Grünenfelder and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram). The following text was provided by the City of Vancouver: Commissioned as part of the series Coastal City for the 25th Anniversary of the City of Vancouver Public Art Program Vancouver.ca/platform2016

media
Inkjet printer on paper photographing
The photographs in the attached images of the posters were photographed jointly by Alex Grünenfelder and Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram. All of the photographs of the posters installed in the bus shelters were taken by by Alex Grünenfelder.

fabricators / suppliers
OUTFRONT MEDIA Decaux in cooperation with
the printer, LinxPrint, as service-providers to the City of Vancouver

2016-sept-telemay-chokecherry-castle_grunenfelder_ingram

 

castle-grunenfelder-ingram-2016-nearly-lost-poster-3-kwu7upay-nanaimo-e-3rd-img_0348

castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #3 kwu7upay Pacific crabapple Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at Nanaimo & East 3rd, late October and early November 2016, photograph by Laiwan

 

castle-grunenfelder-ingram-2016-nearly-lost-poster-4-qwaupulhp

castle grünenfelder ingram, 2016 Nearly lost poster #4 qwa’upulhp | Pacific crabapple | Malus fusca, installed in Vancouver at King Edward & Ontario, late October and early November 2016,  photograph by Sally Ogis

chokecherry-text-1

crabapple-text-3

kexmin-note3

 

Ripening crabapple, qwa’up [Hul’q’umi’num], Malus fusca on Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island

*crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_1189

Pacific crabapple, qwa’upulhp (in the downriver dialect of Halkomelem), ḴÁ¸EW̱ (SENĆOŦEN), Malus fusca, north of the site of the village of Xwaaqw’um, Burgoyne Bay, Salt Spring Island 2016 August 11 & 12, photographs by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

0 crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0599

1 crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_1113

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0582

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0499

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_1015

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0964

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0533

crabapple 2016 August 11 & 12 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0510

ripe chokecherry, thuxwun [Halkomelem], Prunus virginiana, above Fulford Harbour, Salt Spring Island

 

2016 August 12 chokecherry Grünenfelder & Ingram IMG_0049

ripe chokecherry, lhex̱wlhéx̱w & thuxwun [Halkomelem] above Fulford Harbour, Salt Spring Island photograph by Alex Grünenfelder & Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2016 August 12

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0472

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0471

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0443

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0431

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0378

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0249

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0143

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0047 copy

4 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0476

3 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0579

2 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram***IMG_0446

1 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0573

0 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0563

chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0379 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0435 chokecherry 2016 August 9 - 11 grunenfelder & ingram**IMG_0584

project bibliography: 3. introgression: evolving Northern Hemisphere fruit tree gene pools & biocultures

À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu: Decolonising permaculture: The greatest adversity comes from forgetting

#5 Utopiana mosaic 3 castle&ingram

bibliography heading

 

compiled project bibliographies: 2017 June 22 bibliography À la recherche de certaines récoltes presque perdu

 

  1. introgression: evolving Northern Hemisphere fruit tree gene pools & biocultures

Berkes, Fikret. 2012. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251 – 162.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke eds. 2003. Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press

Campa, Ana, Noemí Trabanco, Elena Pérez-Vega1, Mercé Rovira and Juan J. Ferreira. 2011. Genetic relationship between cultivated and wild hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) collected in northern Spain. Plant Breeding 130(3): 360–366. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2010.01835.x/abstract

Coart, Xavier Vekemans, Marinus J M Smulders, Iris Wagner, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, and Erik Van Bockstaele. 2003. Genetic variation in the endangered wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) in Belgium as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology 12(4):845-57.

Coart, E, S Van Glabeke, M. De Loose, A.S. Larsen, and I. Roldán-Ruiz. 2006. Chloroplast diversity in the genus Malus: new insights into the relationship between the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) and the domesticated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Molecular Ecology 15(8):2171-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16780433

Deur, Douglas. 2002. Rethinking precolonial plant cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Professional Geographer 54: 140 – 157.

Deur, Douglas. 2005. Tending the garden, making the soil: Northwest Coast estuarine gardens as engineered environments. In Keeping It Living’: Traditions of Plant Use and cultivation on the Northwest coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner (editors). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 296 – 330.

Glausiusz, Josie. 2014. Apples of Eden: Saving the Wild Ancestor of Modern Apples – The original apples still grow in Central Asia, but are threatened with extinction. National Geographic (MAY 09, 2014). http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/apples-of-eden-saving-the-wild-ancestor-of-modern-apples/

Gremli, August. 1889. The flora of Switzerland for the use of tourists and field-botanists. Fifth Edition (Leonard W. Paitson trans.). London: David Nutt (Printed in Zurich).

Hanelt, Peter. 1997. Eurropean wild relatives of Prunus fruit crops. Bocconea 7: 401-408. http://www.herbmedit.org/bocconea/7-401.pdf

Héribaud-Joseph (frère). 1891. Analyse descriptive des Rubus du plateau central de la France. Clermont-Ferrand: Rousseau Libraire-Editeur.

Honoré, Tiphaine. 2012. Agroforestry, the traditional practice of growing crops around trees, is regaining popularity in parts of France. Guardian (21 August, 2012). http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/aug/21/agroforestry-france-farming-revival

Hummer, Kim E. 1996. Rubus diversity. Hortscience 31(2) (APRIL 1996): 182 – 183. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/31/2/182

Jacques, Dominique, Kristine Vandermijnsbrugge, Sébastein Lemaire, Adriana Antofie and Marc Lateur. 2009. Natural Distribution and Variability of Wild Apple (Malus Sylvestris) in Belgium. Belgian Journal of Botany 142(1): 39-49. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20794670

Keller, Ferdinand. 1878. The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and Other Parts of Europe, Volume 1. London: Longmans, Green, and Company.

Kole, Chittaranjan (editor). 2011. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources – Temperate Fruits. New York: Springer.

Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2005 Documenting pre-contact plant management on the Northwest Coast. An example of prescribed burning in the central and upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. in Keeping it Living: Traditions of plant use and cultivation on the Northwest Coast. Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner (editors). Seattle: UW Press / Vancouver: UBC Press. 2018 – 39.

Lepofsky, Dana and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2008. Documenting ancient plant management in the Northwest of North America. Botany 86: 129 – 145.

Manley, W.F., 2002, Postglacial Flooding of the Bering Land Bridge: A Geospatial Animation: Boulder, Colorado: INSTAAR, University of Colorado. http://instaar.colorado.edu/QGISL/bering_land_bridge

Maubon, Michel, Jean-Fran¸cois Ponge, Jean Andre. 1995. Dynamics of Vaccinium myrtillus patches in mountain spruce forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 6(3) 343-348. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00505508/document

Meltzer, David J. 2009. First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Moss, Madonna L, Dorthy M Peteet, and Cathy Whitlock. 2007. Mid-Holocene culture and climate on the Northwest coast of North America. in Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics: A Global Perspective on Mid-Holocene Transitions. David G Anderson, Kirk A Maasch and Daniel H Sandweiss (editors). San Diego: Elsevier and Academic Press. 491 – 529.

Parrotta, John A. and Ronald L. Trosper (editors). 2012. Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge: Sustaining Communities, Ecosystems and Biocultural Diversity. New York: Springer.

Pollan, Michael. 1998. Breaking Ground: The Call of the Wild Apple. New York Times (November 5, 1998).

Pollmann, Britta, Stefanie Jacomet, and Angela Schlumbaum 2005. Morphological and genetic studies of waterlogged Prunus species from the Roman Vicus Tasgetium (Eschenz, Switzerland). Journal of Archaeological Science. 32(10):1471–1480. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440305000853

Renfrew, Jane M. 1973. Palaeoethnobotany: The Prehistoric Food Plants of the Near East and Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.

Robinson, S. P., S. A. Harris, and B. E. Juniper. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh. Plant Systematics and Evolution 226(1-2): 35 – 58.

Routson, Kanin J. 2012 Malus diversity in wild and agricultural systems. PhD dissertation University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Routson, Kanin J, G M Volk, C M Richards, S E Smith, G P Nabhan, and V Whyllie de Echeverria. 2012. Genetic variation and distribution of Pacific crabapple. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 137(5): 325 – 332.

Sauer, Jonathan D. 1993. Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster. London CRC Press

Schnitzler, Annik, Claire Arnold, Amandine Cornille, Olivier Bachmann, and Christophe Schnitzler. 2014. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. PLOS| One (May 14, 2014) DOI:  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0096596

Senos, Rene, Frank Lake, Nancy J Turner, and Dennis Martinez. 2006. Traditional ecological knowledge and restoration practice in the Pacific Northwest. in Encyclopedia for Restoration of Pacific Northwest Ecosystems. Dean Apostal (editor). Washington DC: Island. 393 – 426.

Suttles, Wayne P. 1974. Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians: The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. New York: Garland.

Suttles, Wayne P. 2005 Coast Salish Resource Management: Incipient Agriculture? in Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Douglas Deur and Nancy J Turner (editors). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 181 – 93.

Tavaud, M., A. Zanetto, J. L. David, F Laigret and E. Dirlewanger. 2004. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus xgondouinii and Prunus cerasus). Heredity 93(6): 631–638.

Teeling, Claire. 2012. In situ conservation of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Europe. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham. http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/4390/

Teeling, C., N. Maxted and B. V. Ford-Lloyd. 2012. The challenges of modelling species distribution: A case study of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Europe. in Agrobiodiversity Conservation: Securing the Diversity of Crop Wild Relatives and Landraces. Nigel Maxted, Mohammad E. Dulloo, Brian V. Ford-Lloyd, Lothar Frese, Jose M. Iriondo, and Miguel A. A. Pinheiro de Carvalho (editors). Egham, Surrey UK: CABI. 29 – 35.

Trosper, Ronald. 2002. Northwest coast indigenous institutions that supported resilience and sustainability. Ecological Economics 41: 329 – 344.

Trosper, Ronald L. 2003. Resilience in pre-contact Pacific Northwest social ecological systems. Conservation Ecology 7(3): 6. http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss3/art6/

Trosper, Ronald. 2009. Resilience, Reciprocity and Ecological Economics: Northwest Coast Sustainability. New York: Routledge.

Turner, Nancy J. 2003. Passing on the news: Women’s work, traditional knowledge and plant resource management in indigenous societies of northwestern North America. in Women and Plants: Case studies on gender relations in local plant genetic resource management. P. L. Howard (editor). London: Zed Books. 133 – 149.

Turner, Nancy J. 2009. ‘It’s so different today’: Climate change and indigenous lifeways in British Columbia, Canada. in Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change. Jan Salick and Nanci Ross (editors). special issues Global Environmental Change 19: 180 – 190.

Turner, Nancy J. 2014A. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Volume 1: The History and Practice of Indigenous Plant Knowledge. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Turner, Nancy J. 2014B. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Volume Two – The Place and Meaning of Plants in Indigenous Cultures and Worldviews. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Turner, Nancy J and Fikret Berkes. 2006. Coming to understanding: Developing conservation through incremental learning. in Developing Resource Management and Conservation. Fikret Berkes and Nancy J Turner (editors). Special issue. Human Ecology 34(4): 495 – 513.

Turner, Nancy J and Iain J Davidson-Hunt, and M O’Flaherty. 2003. ‘Living on the Edge’ Ecological and cultural edges as sources of diversity for social-ecological resilience. Human Ecology 31 (3): 31 – 47.

Wagner, Iris, W.D. Maurer, P. Lemmen, H.P. Schmitt, M. Wagner, and M. Binder. 2014. Hybridization and Genetic Diversity in Wild Apple (Malus_sylvestris (L.) MILL) from Various Regions in Germany and from Luxembourg. Silvae Genetica 63(3):81-94.  http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270450148_Hybridization_and_Genetic_Diversity_in_Wild_Apple_(Malus_sylvestris_(L.)_MILL)_from_Various_Regions_in_Germany_and_from_Luxembourg

Weber, Heinrich E. 1997. Two new Rubus species from Switzerland and other parts of Central Europe. Botanica Helvetica 107(2): 211-220. http://eurekamag.com/research/009/684/009684485.php

Wyllie de Echeverria, Victoria. 2013 Moolks (Pacific crabapple, Malus fusca) on the North Coast of British Columbia: Knowledge and meaning in Gitga’at Culture. MSc thesis University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia.

Zohary, Daniel, Maria Hopf, and Ehud Weiss. 2012. Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The origin and spread of domesticated plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

The Tree Question: Field research & cultivation practices in community-based public art in an age of ecological crises

2016 April 25 presentation Geneva University of Art & Design

Trans – Mediation, Education, * Haute École d’art et de design Genève HEAD

bosque-section-presqueperdu-Gordon-Brent-Brochu-Ingram-small

abstract: 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘tree’ presentation

bilingual notes: (trad) 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘tree’ presentation

powerpoint: 2016 April 25 Brochu-Ingram TransHEAD ‘The Tree Question’ PowerPoint

title of The Tree Question

abstract

Since the pioneering 1982 intervention by Joseph Beuys, the 7000 Eichen – Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung) / 7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration, tree planting, and cultivation more generally, have increasingly become contemporary art practice. Employment of such cultivation interventions, as contemporary art and not as landscape architecture, have nearly always used as a way to challenge particular notions and demarcations of the ‘public’, on one hand, and experiences of communities, landscapes and ecosystems, on the other hand. Such a set of oppositional tactics often contrasts itself with professionalized landscape architecture more often employed to re-enforce the status quo of public space. And since documenta 7, a raft of experimental artists have rifted on notions of agriculture (and silviculture, horticulture, and permaculture) as visual culture most notably Alan Sonfist (et al 2014, Landi 2011), Ron Benner (2008), the Fallen Fruit collective (Goodyear 2012), and Sam Van Aken (Brooks 2014). But precisely how ‘contemporary’ are such tree planting ‘works’ and how are associated practices and conceptualizations changing as ecological crises intensify, as cultural signifiers shift, as access to scientific information increases, and as data sources and ecological and social paradigms diversify? And how do these Western and often Eurocentric aesthetic movements, involving trees and urban space, construct relationships with recoveries and practices of indigenous communities often at odds with modernity?

 

One point of inquiry is provided by Claire Bishop’s 2012 note that, “Beuys drew a conceptual line between his output as a sculptor and his discursive / pedagogic work” (page 245), the latter including his tree planting. But if cultivation is more of a conceptual disruptor and teaching opportunity than part of artistic production to produce an art work, why does the aesthetic importance of trees for interventions in public space continue to increase? A more problematic and indefinite set of questions derive from the divergent and shifting uses of tree planting in contemporary culture. For example, there is no sign that the 1982 intervention in Kassel was intended to contribute to carbon sequestration or to conserve local habitat and species, or to build community through sharing fruit as in the recent tree planting work in Los Angeles of Fallen Fruit. Today, it would be difficult to plant a tree, as a contemporary art work, without professed relationships to countering climate change, gentrification, and homelessness and contributing to carbon sequestration, food security, and social equity. So like painting, drawing, and sculpture, the basic ‘materials’ of tree planting, however organic, are infinitely pliable — as long as respective organisms and ecosystems can survive and be part of public space. There is an implicit aesthetic of survival.

 

What are the diverse roles of science in these forms of artistic research? In particular, how does tree-planting-as-contemporary-art challenge, expand, and re-enforce broader art movements such as,

  1. various forms of community participation as art (embodied in the work of Suzanne Lacey and Martha Rosler),
  2. scientific experimentation as in ‘wetware’ and biological modification,
  3. traditional knowledge and other indigenous experiences,
  4. relational aesthetics as new forms of education and community aesthetic engagement, and
  5. micro-urban tactics that transform multiple publics?

Or do the heightened skills and artifice required to sufficiently manipulate a site in deteriorating environments, to insure that trees will thrive, represent another kind of cultivation of culture that signals a new and more tenuous phase of the “Anthropocene” (Wark 2015)? In other words, are the creative perspectives and practices of contemporary artists, particularly collaboratives and collectives, increasingly necessary to keep communities, ecosystems, and public spaces ‘alive’, diverse, and evolving?

 

Brochu-Ingram presents some early results from some of his ongoing investigations, designs, and interventions in the Vancouver and Geneva regions.

 

references

Benner, Ron. 2008. Gardens of a Colonial Present / Jardins d’un Present Colonial. London, Ontario: London Museum.

Beuys, Joseph. 1982. 7000 Eichen – Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung) / 7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration. Kassel, Hesse: documenta 7.

Bishop, Claire. 2012. Artificial Hells: Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship. New York: Verso.

Brooks, Katherine. 2014. This One Tree Grows 40 Different Types Of Fruit, Is Probably From The Future. The Huffington Post (July 24, 2014)

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/24/tree-of-40-fruit_n_5614935.html

Goodyear, Dana. 2012. Eat A Free Peach: Mapping “Public Fruit.” The New Yorker (March 12, 2012). http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/eat-a-free-peach-mapping-public-fruit

Landi, Ann. 2011. Separating the Trees from the Forest: Alan Sonfist has built a career as an urban land artist. ARTnews (Summer 2011) (POSTED 08/15/11 5:58 PM). http://www.artnews.com/2011/08/15/separating-the-trees-from-the-forest/

Sonfist, Alan, Wolfgang Becker, and Robert Rosenblum. 2004. Nature, The End of Art: Environmental Landscapes. New York: Distributed Art Publishers.

Wark, Mckenzie. 2015. Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene. London: Verso.

salmon smoking rack bean trellis

2015 August 3 treillis abstraction 04-08-15_1426 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2016 Feb 9 y trellis montage - Gordon Brent Ingram

above: early February 2016 after the runner bean vines have died back

below: July 2015 at the height of flowering of the runner beans

2015 August salmon smoking rack bean trellis Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 5 Burgoyne Valley Community Farm (google satellite) Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

This work is currently installed on Plot 20 in The Burgoyne Valley Community Farm at 2232 Fulford Ganges Road, east of Reid Creek, on Salt Spring Island. The trellis is roughly in the centre of this modified scene, just south-west of the West Gate.

The dimensions are roughly 9 meters x 3 meters and extending at times to a height of 7 meters. Some of the vines may well establish as perennials and the local, dead wood, harvested from the riparian forest along Reid Creek, is already beginning to break down — contributing more nutrients such as nitrogen to a clay soil that is depleted by partial water-logging and standing water in the winter. The trellis will be replanted next year but the design will change as the height increases to support the long vines.

2015 Oct - aerial - trellis

2015 August 6 trellis montage Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 06 07-08-15_1433 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2015 August 6 07-08-15_1447 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2015 August 6 trellis 07-08-15_1435 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram2015 August 2015 07-08-15_1449 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 3 04-08-15_1443 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

 2015 August 3 trellis 04-08-15_1444 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 3 trellis 04-08-15_1445 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 August 1 02-08-15_1724 salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2015 August 1 02-08-15_1653 salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram 2015 August 1 02-08-15_1658 salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

 

2015 August 1 trellis - darker sky montage salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 Sept trellis iteration - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

2015 August 1 trellis - lighter sky montage salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small) 2015 August 1 trellis - turquoise sky montage salmon smoking rack bean trellis 2015 Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram (small)

 

2015 July 23 trellis & blossom - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 July 27 trellis blossoms #2 - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 July 27 trellis blossoms #1 - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

 

2015 July 27 trellis blossoms #3 - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

This traditional variety of Scarlet Emperor Runner Bean, that was only planted on June 10, 2015, started blossoming massively on this trellis on July 24. Many honey bees and some hummingbirds are now enjoying the trellis.

2015 July 21 salmon smoking rack bean trellis - composite - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2014 July 23 blossom montage trellis - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 July 21 salmon smoking rack bean trellis - composite - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram

2015 July 21 salmon smoking rack bean trellis - Gordon Brent Brochu-Ingram Continue reading salmon smoking rack bean trellis